IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 494-497

Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit

Authors: Mohammed Wasel H. Alsimail, Meshari Fayez I. Aladhadh, Ibrahem Hamad I. Erwe, Abdulrahman Ahmed A. Alnaim, Ali Majed A. Almuzaini, Qasem Ahmed Ali Almulihi.

ABSTRACT

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute and severe condition that can occur in diabetic patients. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, dehydration, and metabolic acidosis that develops from hyperproduction of ketones. This condition results in further complications such as cerebral edema that is more severe and common among the children. The current review was aimed to overview the spectrum of pediatric ketoacidosis and its management. The online databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to perform a literature search for publications published between 2008 and 2019, without any date or language restrictions. We used a combination of relevant search terms "DKA, Children, Prevalence, Complications, Management." We independently identified publications and systematically screened titles, abstracts, and full texts of the collected publications. Among 40 articles, initially selected based on the title and abstract, 31 articles were excluded as they were either duplicate of existed articles, or case reports, or articles published before 2000 or conducted on adults. Finally, nine review articles were selected and included in the systematic review. DKA was found as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic children, especially those with type 1 diabetes due to the development of cerebral edema as a complication of DKA.

Keywords:
DKA, children, prevalence, complications, management


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Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit


Authors
Mohammed Wasel H Alsimail
King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Meshari Fayez I Aladhadh
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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Ibrahem Hamad I Erwe
King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
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Abdulrahman Ahmed A Alnaim
King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
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Ali Majed A Almuzaini
Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Qasem Ahmed Ali Almulihi
Prince Saud Bin Jalawy Hospital, Al Mubarraz, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
. Mohammed Wasel H. Alsimail, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.; moh 1416@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 09 Dec 2019
Accepted 23 Dec 2019
Published online 06 Jan 2020

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Pubmed Style

Alsimail MWH, Aladhadh MFI, Erwe IHI, Alnaim AAA, Almuzaini AMA, Almulihi QAA. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


Web Style

Alsimail MWH, Aladhadh MFI, Erwe IHI, Alnaim AAA, Almuzaini AMA, Almulihi QAA. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=77349 [Access: August 06, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alsimail MWH, Aladhadh MFI, Erwe IHI, Alnaim AAA, Almuzaini AMA, Almulihi QAA. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alsimail MWH, Aladhadh MFI, Erwe IHI, Alnaim AAA, Almuzaini AMA, Almulihi QAA. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. IJMDC. (2020), [cited August 06, 2020]; 4(2): 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


Harvard Style

Alsimail, M. W. H., Aladhadh, . M. F. I., Erwe, . I. H. I., Alnaim, . A. A. A., Almuzaini, . A. M. A. & Almulihi, . Q. A. A. (2020) Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. IJMDC, 4 (2), 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


Turabian Style

Alsimail, Mohammed Wasel H., Meshari Fayez I. Aladhadh, Ibrahem Hamad I. Erwe, Abdulrahman Ahmed A. Alnaim, Ali Majed A. Almuzaini, and Qasem Ahmed Ali Almulihi. 2020. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


Chicago Style

Alsimail, Mohammed Wasel H., Meshari Fayez I. Aladhadh, Ibrahem Hamad I. Erwe, Abdulrahman Ahmed A. Alnaim, Ali Majed A. Almuzaini, and Qasem Ahmed Ali Almulihi. "Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alsimail, Mohammed Wasel H., Meshari Fayez I. Aladhadh, Ibrahem Hamad I. Erwe, Abdulrahman Ahmed A. Alnaim, Ali Majed A. Almuzaini, and Qasem Ahmed Ali Almulihi. "Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.2 (2020), 494-497. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alsimail, M. W. H., Aladhadh, . M. F. I., Erwe, . I. H. I., Alnaim, . A. A. A., Almuzaini, . A. M. A. & Almulihi, . Q. A. A. (2020) Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and spectrum of complications in the pediatric intensive care unit. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 494-497. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575929305


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