Original Article

IJMDC. 2022; 6(9): 1157-1164

The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students

Authors: Saad Mohammed Althiabi, Aryaf Abdulrahman Alnafeesah, Beshayer Abdullah Al-haqqass Al-boqami, Buthaina Hamad Alkhulifi, Shoug Mohammed Albadi, Rawabi Fahad Alfowzan.

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a tremendous expansion in the Internet and technology and social distancing, which increased the usage of digital devices more than before. This puts people at a higher risk of getting digital eye strain (DES) symptoms especially dry eye. This study aimed at evaluating the association between DESsymptoms, especially dry eye, and the online study during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical students at Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed among medical students. Results: The present study showed a significant difference between usage duration before and during the lockdown. Digital device use for more than 10 hours per day was reported by 67.4% of the medical students 57.1% were male students. Chi-squared analysis indicated most symptoms are associated with the usage duration. The overall prevalence of DES was 92.6%, and the most notable symptoms that increased during the pandemic were those related to eye dryness (43.5%). Moreover, the most frequently used device daily was the smartphone (90.6%) and tablet (71.2%). Conclusion: The use of screen-based technologies has become a necessity of modern life, notably during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to a serious dependence on them and an increase in the prevalence of DES symptoms, particularly eye dryness. It is important to raise awareness about DES symptoms, including dry eye associated with long use of digital devices and the measures to protect ocular health by limiting screen time use, following the 20-20-20 rule, using lubricant eye drops and protective glasses.

Keywords:
Dry eye, digital eye strain symptoms, COVID-19 pandemic, medical students, online study


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The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students


Authors
Saad Mohammed Althiabi
Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Aryaf Abdulrahman Alnafeesah
Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Beshayer Abdullah Al-haqqass Al-boqami
Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Buthaina Hamad Alkhulifi
Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Shoug Mohammed Albadi
Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Rawabi Fahad Alfowzan
Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia.
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Correspondence to:
. Medical Student, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.; dr.aryaf.alnafeesah@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 08 Aug 2022
Accepted 19 Aug 2022
Published online 15 Sep 2022
Published in print 23 Sep 2022

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Pubmed Style

Althiabi SM, Alnafeesah AA, Al-boqami BAA, Alkhulifi BH, Albadi SM, Alfowzan RF. The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. IJMDC. 2022; 6(9): 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


Web Style

Althiabi SM, Alnafeesah AA, Al-boqami BAA, Alkhulifi BH, Albadi SM, Alfowzan RF. The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=99635 [Access: December 03, 2022]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Althiabi SM, Alnafeesah AA, Al-boqami BAA, Alkhulifi BH, Albadi SM, Alfowzan RF. The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. IJMDC. 2022; 6(9): 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Althiabi SM, Alnafeesah AA, Al-boqami BAA, Alkhulifi BH, Albadi SM, Alfowzan RF. The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. IJMDC. (2022), [cited December 03, 2022]; 6(9): 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


Harvard Style

Althiabi, S. M., Alnafeesah, . A. A., Al-boqami, . B. A. A., Alkhulifi, . B. H., Albadi, . S. M. & Alfowzan, . R. F. (2022) The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. IJMDC, 6 (9), 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


Turabian Style

Althiabi, Saad Mohammed, Aryaf Abdulrahman Alnafeesah, Beshayer Abdullah Al-haqqass Al-boqami, Buthaina Hamad Alkhulifi, Shoug Mohammed Albadi, and Rawabi Fahad Alfowzan. 2022. The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 6 (9), 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


Chicago Style

Althiabi, Saad Mohammed, Aryaf Abdulrahman Alnafeesah, Beshayer Abdullah Al-haqqass Al-boqami, Buthaina Hamad Alkhulifi, Shoug Mohammed Albadi, and Rawabi Fahad Alfowzan. "The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 6 (2022), 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Althiabi, Saad Mohammed, Aryaf Abdulrahman Alnafeesah, Beshayer Abdullah Al-haqqass Al-boqami, Buthaina Hamad Alkhulifi, Shoug Mohammed Albadi, and Rawabi Fahad Alfowzan. "The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 6.9 (2022), 1157-1164. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Althiabi, S. M., Alnafeesah, . A. A., Al-boqami, . B. A. A., Alkhulifi, . B. H., Albadi, . S. M. & Alfowzan, . R. F. (2022) The association between digital eye strain symptoms, especially dry eye and online study during COVID-19 pandemic among Qassim University medical students. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 6 (9), 1157-1164. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1659941621


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