E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Review Article

Online Publishing Date:
11 / 02 / 2019

 


Antibiotic Resistance Crisis

Nuha Saad Mobarki, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, Ahmad Hattan Hattan.


Cited By: 21

Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a universal public health problem affecting the benefit of antibiotics. Antibiotic use, inappropriate dosage, and genetics led to the spread of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, and it became hard to treat infections. Here, we reviewed recent updates of antimicrobial resistance in the period from 2004 to 2019. Scientific websites were used to search for articles related to our subject such as PubMed and Google scholar using several keywords including AMR, Antibiotic abuse; Antibiotic resistance; crisis; bacterial infection. We obtained 55 articles, 45 of them included and they were published between the years 2004 and 2019, whereas those who excluded were not focusing on our aim. Antibiotic resistance crisis is widespread and still increasing, due to continuous abuse of antibiotics and deficiency of new antibiotic industry. The multifaceted plane is required to control antibiotic resistance crisis. Educational programs and awareness campaigns are required. Research, explanations, and solutions should be implanted. Screening and diagnostic tools of antibiotic resistance should be improved and globally applied. Overall, AMR is not uncontrollable anymore. Antibiotics alternatives as probiotics and lytic bacteriophages can participate in decreasing AMR worldwide.

Key words: AMR, antibiotic abuse, antibiotic resistance, crisis, bacterial infection.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Mobarki NS, Almerabi BA, Hattan AH. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. IJMDC. 2019; 3(6): 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699


Web Style

Mobarki NS, Almerabi BA, Hattan AH. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=29239 [Access: February 27, 2024]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mobarki NS, Almerabi BA, Hattan AH. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. IJMDC. 2019; 3(6): 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mobarki NS, Almerabi BA, Hattan AH. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. IJMDC. (2019), [cited February 27, 2024]; 3(6): 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



Harvard Style

Mobarki, N. S., Almerabi, . B. A. & Hattan, . A. H. (2019) Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. IJMDC, 3 (6), 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



Turabian Style

Mobarki, Nuha Saad, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, and Ahmad Hattan Hattan. 2019. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (6), 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



Chicago Style

Mobarki, Nuha Saad, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, and Ahmad Hattan Hattan. "Antibiotic Resistance Crisis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mobarki, Nuha Saad, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, and Ahmad Hattan Hattan. "Antibiotic Resistance Crisis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.6 (2019), 561-564. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mobarki, N. S., Almerabi, . B. A. & Hattan, . A. H. (2019) Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (6), 561-564. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699





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