Original Article

IJMDC. 2021; 5(9): 1590-1598

Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge

Authors: Shazia Iqbal, Manar Abdullah Alanazi, Nouryah Abdulaziz Alhafez, Shrouq Salem Alanazi, Wedad Saad Aldhahry, Areej Khalaf Alanazi, Zahraa Yousef Alghadeer.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nipple discharge (ND) is known as any fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of a non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding breast. Intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, papillomatosis, mastitis, or fibrocystic changes are the most frequent causes of abnormal benign conditions. Up to authors' knowledge; there are not enough published papers regarding perception and attitude of Saudi women about abnormal ND and its causes. The main objective of this study was to examine perception and attitude of Saudi women about abnormal ND among Saudi women in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November 2020. A pre-designed online questionnaire was distributed on social media targeting Saudi women in different age groups to be self administered. Data were compiled and analyzed using a statistical package for the social sciences. The relation between abnormal ND and sociodemographic characters was determined using the chisquare test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: According to our results, 8.2% (n = 176) of participants reported abnormal breast secretions other than during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Among 30.7% (n = 54) of cases, the secretions were accompanied by redness, 41.5% reported breast pain, 48.8% had small pits or wrinkles in the skin, 36.4% suffered from nipple retraction, 35.2% reported itchy sores or a rash on the nipple, in 32.4% of cases the secretions accompanied with a change in the size or shape of the breasts, and 25.6% observed that secretions were accompanied with a change in the internal composition of the breast or the appearance of an unknown mass. Conclusion: Abnormal ND was relatively prevalent among Saudi women. There was a significant relationship between social status, smoking, menstrual cycle regularity, having children, and late for childbearing.

Keywords:
nipple, abnormal, discharge, Saudi Arabia, women, cancer


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Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge


Authors
Shazia Iqbal
Assistant Professor (Obstetrics & Gynaecology) & Director of Medical Education Unit, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Manar Abdullah Alanazi
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Nouryah Abdulaziz Alhafez
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Shrouq Salem Alanazi
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Wedad Saad Aldhahry
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Areej Khalaf Alanazi
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Zahraa Yousef Alghadeer
Medical Student, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Shazia Iqbal, Assistant Professor (Obstetrics & Gynaecology) & Director of Medical Education Unit, Alfarabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.; iqbalian2002@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 07 Jul 2021
Accepted 23 Aug 2021
Published online 09 Sep 2021
Published in print 28 Sep 2021

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Pubmed Style

Iqbal S, Alanazi MA, Alhafez NA, Alanazi SS, Aldhahry WS, Alanazi AK, Alghadeer ZY. Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. IJMDC. 2021; 5(9): 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


Web Style

Iqbal S, Alanazi MA, Alhafez NA, Alanazi SS, Aldhahry WS, Alanazi AK, Alghadeer ZY. Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=93963 [Access: December 01, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Iqbal S, Alanazi MA, Alhafez NA, Alanazi SS, Aldhahry WS, Alanazi AK, Alghadeer ZY. Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. IJMDC. 2021; 5(9): 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Iqbal S, Alanazi MA, Alhafez NA, Alanazi SS, Aldhahry WS, Alanazi AK, Alghadeer ZY. Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. IJMDC. (2021), [cited December 01, 2021]; 5(9): 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


Harvard Style

Iqbal, S., Alanazi, . M. A., Alhafez, . N. A., Alanazi, . S. S., Aldhahry, . W. S., Alanazi, . A. K. & Alghadeer, . Z. Y. (2021) Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. IJMDC, 5 (9), 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


Turabian Style

Iqbal, Shazia, Manar Abdullah Alanazi, Nouryah Abdulaziz Alhafez, Shrouq Salem Alanazi, Wedad Saad Aldhahry, Areej Khalaf Alanazi, and Zahraa Yousef Alghadeer. 2021. Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (9), 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


Chicago Style

Iqbal, Shazia, Manar Abdullah Alanazi, Nouryah Abdulaziz Alhafez, Shrouq Salem Alanazi, Wedad Saad Aldhahry, Areej Khalaf Alanazi, and Zahraa Yousef Alghadeer. "Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Iqbal, Shazia, Manar Abdullah Alanazi, Nouryah Abdulaziz Alhafez, Shrouq Salem Alanazi, Wedad Saad Aldhahry, Areej Khalaf Alanazi, and Zahraa Yousef Alghadeer. "Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.9 (2021), 1590-1598. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Iqbal, S., Alanazi, . M. A., Alhafez, . N. A., Alanazi, . S. S., Aldhahry, . W. S., Alanazi, . A. K. & Alghadeer, . Z. Y. (2021) Saudi women perception, attitude and awareness about abnormal nipple discharge. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (9), 1590-1598. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1625570721


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