IJMDC. 2021; 5(5): 1248-1256

The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review

Authors: Enas Kassem, Noha Yahya Barradah.

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease worldwide. It is one of the most common disabling diseases with many motor and cognitive dysfunctions causing dependency and poor quality of life making efficient treatment mandatory. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of PD worldwide and in the Middle East, understand its pathophysiological mechanism, and discuss and evaluate the main lines of treatment for PD and their targets in treating the motor and cognitive dysfunctions. Motor dysfunctions were mainly due to dopaminergic alterations in the basal ganglia (BG). They were usually presented as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremors, and postural instability. Dementia is the most common cognitive dysfunction in the disease. The main goal of treatment was to treat the dopaminergic dysfunction with a variety of pharmacological methods, including dopamine (DA) precursors, such as levodopa, DA agonists, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. There were other lines of treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), stem cell transplantation, and gene therapy. In this review, it was found that the DA precursor, levodopa, is considered the standard therapy for PD. However, it is better to delay the usage of it, especially in young age. DBS and cell transplantation could be promising treatments in the future as they need further exploration. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation shows significant effects in improving the quality of life.

Keywords:
Parkinson's disease, dopamine, basal ganglia, motor dysfunctions, and cognitive dysfunctions.


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The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review


Authors
Enas Kassem
Department of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Noha Yahya Barradah
Department of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Department of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.; Nohabarradah1@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 31 Mar 2021
Accepted 13 Apr 2021
Published online 14 Apr 2021
Published in print 06 Jun 2021

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Pubmed Style

Kassem E, Barradah NY. The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(5): 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


Web Style

Kassem E, Barradah NY. The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=69267 [Access: July 25, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kassem E, Barradah NY. The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(5): 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kassem E, Barradah NY. The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. IJMDC. (2021), [cited July 25, 2021]; 5(5): 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


Harvard Style

Kassem, E. & Barradah, . N. Y. (2021) The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. IJMDC, 5 (5), 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


Turabian Style

Kassem, Enas, and Noha Yahya Barradah. 2021. The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (5), 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


Chicago Style

Kassem, Enas, and Noha Yahya Barradah. "The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kassem, Enas, and Noha Yahya Barradah. "The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.5 (2021), 1248-1256. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kassem, E. & Barradah, . N. Y. (2021) The rationale of treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease in relation to motor and cognitive dysfunctions: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (5), 1248-1256. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1617182391


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