IJMDC. 2021; 5(11): 1988-1995

Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity

Authors: Naif Aljuhani.

ABSTRACT

Zamzam water is a well-known natural alkaline (pH: 8) drinking water originating from Zamzam well in Makkah (Saudi Arabia) that needs many research efforts being consumed worldwide. A recently published German study confirmed the purity, alkalinity, and stability of Zamzam water components. Zamzam water confers many health benefits and tissue-protective benefits that are promising based on the high mineral and electrolyte contents that correct dehydration and relieve malnutrition besides water alkalinity gastro-esophageal conditions and metabolic acidosis. Pharmacologically, Zamzam water exerts antioxidant hepatoprotective effects against toxins-induced oxidative stress (against carbon tetrachloride and other toxins). Mineral contents of Zamzam water cannot be gained from any other drinking water source except for food. Absent signs, symptoms, and clinical reports of arsenic toxicity greatly relieve British Broadcasting Corporation concerns regarding the consumption of Zamzam water. Reported arsenic concentrations in Zamzam water produce arsenic trioxide (anti-leukemia). Also, co-administration of antioxidants and arsenicals abolished arsenic-induced cellular cytotoxicity. Zamzam waterís overall antioxidant effects strongly support its therapeutic roles as potential antitoxic water, a pharmacological property that may better be utilized in clinical toxicology and treating different kinds of toxicities. We emphasize many drugs-induced free radicals through drug metabolism and discuss biochemical pathways that describe drug metabolitesí disposition in humans. In this review article, all these issues are discussed.

Keywords:
Zamzam water, ROS, antioxidant, arsenic, GSH, drugs


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Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity


Authors
Naif Aljuhani
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Naif Aljuhani, Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.; Njohany@taibahu.edu.sa

Publication history
Received 07 Nov 2020
Accepted 19 Nov 2020
Published online 30 Oct 2021
Published in print 18 Nov 2021

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Pubmed Style

Naif Aljuhani. Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. IJMDC. 2021; 5(11): 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


Web Style

Naif Aljuhani. Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=27665 [Access: January 28, 2022]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Naif Aljuhani. Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. IJMDC. 2021; 5(11): 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Naif Aljuhani. Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. IJMDC. (2021), [cited January 28, 2022]; 5(11): 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


Harvard Style

Naif Aljuhani (2021) Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. IJMDC, 5 (11), 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


Turabian Style

Naif Aljuhani. 2021. Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (11), 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


Chicago Style

Naif Aljuhani. "Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Naif Aljuhani. "Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.11 (2021), 1988-1995. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Naif Aljuhani (2021) Antioxidant properties of Zamzam water: a review for arsenic concerns and potential modulation of drug toxicity. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (11), 1988-1995. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1604775624


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