E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Review Article

Online Publishing Date: 01 / 01 / 2024

 


Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis

Abdulaziz Hussain Khushaym, Fatema Al-Majed, Ghady K. Shafaee, Hadeel Ghazzawi, Hend Al-Mahmood, Jori Al-Mubarak, Leena Alshaibani, Hasheem Alzeyedi, Haitham Jahrami.


Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases yielded ten studies published between 2006 and 2018. The analysis utilized a random-effects model, with the log odds ratio as the outcome measure. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q test and the I² statistic, and potential outliers were identified using studentized residuals and Cook's distances. The findings of the included studies revealed that breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of both ASD and ADHD. Children who were breastfed demonstrated a 30% lower risk of ASD (pooled log odds ratio: -0.3266, 95% CI: -1.2252 to 0.5721) and a 27% lower risk of ADHD (pooled log odds ratio: -0.3266, 95% CI: -1.2252 to 0.5721) than did those who were not breastfed. Subgroup analyses, considering disease type, study design, and study quality, supported these findings. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided the evidence that breastfeeding, whether exclusive or mixed, might have a protective effect against neurodevelopmental disorders, namely, ASD and ADHD. However, the duration of breastfeeding did not significantly impact the development of ADHD. Further research is necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved and to establish more robust conclusions.

Key words: Breastfeeding, neurodevelopmental disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Khushaym AH, Al-Majed F, Shafaee GK, Ghazzawi H, Al-Mahmood H, Al-Mubarak J, Alshaibani L, Alzeyedi H, Jahrami H. Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. IJMDC. 2024; 8(2): 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877


Web Style

Khushaym AH, Al-Majed F, Shafaee GK, Ghazzawi H, Al-Mahmood H, Al-Mubarak J, Alshaibani L, Alzeyedi H, Jahrami H. Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=180913 [Access: February 07, 2024]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Khushaym AH, Al-Majed F, Shafaee GK, Ghazzawi H, Al-Mahmood H, Al-Mubarak J, Alshaibani L, Alzeyedi H, Jahrami H. Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. IJMDC. 2024; 8(2): 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Khushaym AH, Al-Majed F, Shafaee GK, Ghazzawi H, Al-Mahmood H, Al-Mubarak J, Alshaibani L, Alzeyedi H, Jahrami H. Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. IJMDC. (2024), [cited February 07, 2024]; 8(2): 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



Harvard Style

Khushaym, A. H., Al-Majed, . F., Shafaee, . G. K., Ghazzawi, . H., Al-Mahmood, . H., Al-Mubarak, . J., Alshaibani, . L., Alzeyedi, . H. & Jahrami, . H. (2024) Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. IJMDC, 8 (2), 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



Turabian Style

Khushaym, Abdulaziz Hussain, Fatema Al-Majed, Ghady K. Shafaee, Hadeel Ghazzawi, Hend Al-Mahmood, Jori Al-Mubarak, Leena Alshaibani, Hasheem Alzeyedi, and Haitham Jahrami. 2024. Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (2), 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



Chicago Style

Khushaym, Abdulaziz Hussain, Fatema Al-Majed, Ghady K. Shafaee, Hadeel Ghazzawi, Hend Al-Mahmood, Jori Al-Mubarak, Leena Alshaibani, Hasheem Alzeyedi, and Haitham Jahrami. "Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8 (2024), 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Khushaym, Abdulaziz Hussain, Fatema Al-Majed, Ghady K. Shafaee, Hadeel Ghazzawi, Hend Al-Mahmood, Jori Al-Mubarak, Leena Alshaibani, Hasheem Alzeyedi, and Haitham Jahrami. "Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8.2 (2024), 879-886. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Khushaym, A. H., Al-Majed, . F., Shafaee, . G. K., Ghazzawi, . H., Al-Mahmood, . H., Al-Mubarak, . J., Alshaibani, . L., Alzeyedi, . H. & Jahrami, . H. (2024) Breastfeeding and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (2), 879-886. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702305877





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