E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Original Article

Online Publishing Date: 07 / 01 / 2024

 


Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Fathi El-Gamal, Enas Alsulami, Ghram Alali, Atheer Alshehri, Ethar Alradadi.


Abstract
Objective:
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gluten-related disorders (GRD) and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the adult Saudi population.
Methods:
It was an online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A nonprobability convenient sampling method was used to select 500 participants. The chi-square, t-test, and principal component factor analysis were used to study the significance of the relationships.
Results:
The occurrence of symptoms suggesting gluten sensitivity (GS) was 35.8%. The participants who self-reported physician-diagnosed gluten sensitivity (SR-PD-GS) were 7.2%. The symptoms after ingesting gluten/wheat were mainly gastrointestinal tract (GIT) manifestations and fatigue. Physician-diagnosed wheat allergy (PD-WA) was reported by 3.4% participants. PD-GS was reported to be in 1.8% participants. Physician-diagnosed coeliac disease (PD-CD) was reported by 0.4% participants, while physician-diagnosed dermatitis herpetiformis (PD-DH) was reported by 2.2% participants. Factor analysis revealed that the variables PD-GS (b=0.406) and SR-GS (0.449) were significantly associated with a family history of GS (b=0.361) or with CD (b=0.363), and with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colitis, and GIT cancer. Increased stress, anxiety, and depression were substantially associated with a gluten-free diet. Almost 4% participants kept a GFD at home without instructions.
Conclusion:
The implementation of programs to increase awareness about GRDs among the general population and the benefits of following a GFD are desirable in Saudi Arabia. The results also add to the evidence highlighting the under-diagnosis of GRDs and the trend for following a GFD in Saudi Arabia.

Key words: Gluten sensitivity, Gluten-free diet, self-reported, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

El-Gamal F, Alsulami E, Alali G, Alshehri A, Alradadi E. Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2024; 8(2): 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683


Web Style

El-Gamal F, Alsulami E, Alali G, Alshehri A, Alradadi E. Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=178777 [Access: February 07, 2024]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

El-Gamal F, Alsulami E, Alali G, Alshehri A, Alradadi E. Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2024; 8(2): 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

El-Gamal F, Alsulami E, Alali G, Alshehri A, Alradadi E. Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2024), [cited February 07, 2024]; 8(2): 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



Harvard Style

El-Gamal, F., Alsulami, . E., Alali, . G., Alshehri, . A. & Alradadi, . E. (2024) Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 8 (2), 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



Turabian Style

El-Gamal, Fathi, Enas Alsulami, Ghram Alali, Atheer Alshehri, and Ethar Alradadi. 2024. Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (2), 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



Chicago Style

El-Gamal, Fathi, Enas Alsulami, Ghram Alali, Atheer Alshehri, and Ethar Alradadi. "Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8 (2024), 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

El-Gamal, Fathi, Enas Alsulami, Ghram Alali, Atheer Alshehri, and Ethar Alradadi. "Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8.2 (2024), 540-548. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

El-Gamal, F., Alsulami, . E., Alali, . G., Alshehri, . A. & Alradadi, . E. (2024) Self-reported wheat/gluten-related disorders and a gluten-free diet among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (2), 540-548. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1700919683





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