Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1818-1822

Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Authors: Reda Abdelmoaty Goweda, Saud Omar Zakaria, Hisham Mohammed Foudah, Alwaleed Abdullah Almalki, Majed Mujmil Alsulami, Abdulmohsen Hamadi Alhuthali.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been attributed to multiple disorders. Most recently, vitamin D deficiency has been correlated to the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. Accordingly, awareness of the public on the importance of vitamin D can significantly reduce these medical problems. This study evaluates the awareness of vitamin D deficiency among adult residents in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study that included a survey analysis distributed online to the general public in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The survey included questions to collect demographic data and to evaluate the knowledge of participants. A total score for the correct answers was calculated to evaluate the level of knowledge objectively. Data analysis was executed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 26. Results: A total of 304 participants from Makkah, Saudi Arabia, responded to this questionnaire. 75.3% were in the age group 18-28 years. 82.9% were males, 91.1% were Saudi, and 73% were single. Furthermore, 78.9% had a university degree. More than half of the responders had good awareness levels about vitamin D. On scoring their awareness, the average score was 9.64 2.5, out of 14. The most significant risk factor influencing the awareness of Makkah residents toward vitamin D was educational level at a level of significance p-value = 0.028 Conclusion: Awareness about vitamin D deficiency among residents in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, was found to be satisfactory. Further studies in other areas are recommended.

Keywords:
Vitamin D, awareness, Saudi Arabia, residents.


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Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study


Authors
Reda Abdelmoaty Goweda
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
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Saud Omar Zakaria
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
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Hisham Mohammed Foudah
Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Alwaleed Abdullah Almalki
Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
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Majed Mujmil Alsulami
Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
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Abdulmohsen Hamadi Alhuthali
Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
. Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.; redagoweda@yahoo.com

Publication history
Received 19 Sep 2020
Accepted 30 Sep 2020
Published online 06 Oct 2020
Published in print 05 Nov 2020

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Pubmed Style

Goweda RA, Zakaria SO, Foudah HM, Almalki AA, Alsulami MM, Alhuthali AH. Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


Web Style

Goweda RA, Zakaria SO, Foudah HM, Almalki AA, Alsulami MM, Alhuthali AH. Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=136346 [Access: January 24, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Goweda RA, Zakaria SO, Foudah HM, Almalki AA, Alsulami MM, Alhuthali AH. Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Goweda RA, Zakaria SO, Foudah HM, Almalki AA, Alsulami MM, Alhuthali AH. Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. (2020), [cited January 24, 2021]; 4(11): 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


Harvard Style

Goweda, R. A., Zakaria, . S. O., Foudah, . H. M., Almalki, . A. A., Alsulami, . M. M. & Alhuthali, . A. H. (2020) Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC, 4 (11), 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


Turabian Style

Goweda, Reda Abdelmoaty, Saud Omar Zakaria, Hisham Mohammed Foudah, Alwaleed Abdullah Almalki, Majed Mujmil Alsulami, and Abdulmohsen Hamadi Alhuthali. 2020. Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (11), 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


Chicago Style

Goweda, Reda Abdelmoaty, Saud Omar Zakaria, Hisham Mohammed Foudah, Alwaleed Abdullah Almalki, Majed Mujmil Alsulami, and Abdulmohsen Hamadi Alhuthali. "Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Goweda, Reda Abdelmoaty, Saud Omar Zakaria, Hisham Mohammed Foudah, Alwaleed Abdullah Almalki, Majed Mujmil Alsulami, and Abdulmohsen Hamadi Alhuthali. "Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.11 (2020), 1818-1822. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Goweda, R. A., Zakaria, . S. O., Foudah, . H. M., Almalki, . A. A., Alsulami, . M. M. & Alhuthali, . A. H. (2020) Awareness of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (11), 1818-1822. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1600516858


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