IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 381-386

Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review

Authors: Hareth Hamoud Alharthi, Moayad Noor Iskandar, Ammar Sami Felemban, Saud Khalef Alhuthaly.

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has caused a sudden increase in hospitalizations of patients presenting with pneumonia and multi-organ diseases. It originated from the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review aimed at discussing the latest research progress regarding the transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar using the search terms coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, COVID- 19 transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. We also briefly compared the COVID-19 and the other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which emerged in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The most common symptoms reported in COVID-19-infected patients were fever, cough, fatigue, sore throat, and headache. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea and vomiting, were also reported in some patients. Most patients had mild symptoms, except the elderly and patients with chronic disorders. The nucleic acid detection in the nasal, throat, or other respiratory tract swab sampling by real-time PCR is the golden clinical diagnostic method of SARS-CoV2. Most patients had a normal or decreased WBC count. On the contrary, patients with chronic symptoms had a significantly high neutrophil count, D-dimer, blood urea, creatinine levels, and proinflammatory cytokines in addition to lymphocytopenia. Maintaining personal hygiene, wearing masks, social distancing, surveillance programs for testing suspected cases, early quarantine, vigilant contact tracing, and preventing healthcare-related transmission are key factors for stopping the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, there is no proven effective therapy against COVID-19. Remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, lopinavir-ritonavir plus interferon β-1a, and hydroxychloroquine are used to treat COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the corticosteroid therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and the convalescent plasma also showed encouraging results.

Keywords:
Coronavirus disease, COVID-19, transmission, diagnosis, COVID-19 treatment


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Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review


Authors
Hareth Hamoud Alharthi
6th-year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Moayad Noor Iskandar
6th-year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ammar Sami Felemban
6th-year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Saud Khalef Alhuthaly
6th-year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Hareth Hamoud Alharthi, 6th-year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.; sa-q-111@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 21 Nov 2020
Accepted 08 Dec 2020
Published online 15 Dec 2020
Published in print 11 Jan 2021

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Pubmed Style

Alharthi HH, Iskandar MN, Felemban AS, Alhuthaly SK. Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


Web Style

Alharthi HH, Iskandar MN, Felemban AS, Alhuthaly SK. Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=7941 [Access: March 01, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alharthi HH, Iskandar MN, Felemban AS, Alhuthaly SK. Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alharthi HH, Iskandar MN, Felemban AS, Alhuthaly SK. Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. IJMDC. (2021), [cited March 01, 2021]; 5(1): 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


Harvard Style

Alharthi, H. H., Iskandar, . M. N., Felemban, . A. S. & Alhuthaly, . S. K. (2021) Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. IJMDC, 5 (1), 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


Turabian Style

Alharthi, Hareth Hamoud, Moayad Noor Iskandar, Ammar Sami Felemban, and Saud Khalef Alhuthaly. 2021. Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (1), 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


Chicago Style

Alharthi, Hareth Hamoud, Moayad Noor Iskandar, Ammar Sami Felemban, and Saud Khalef Alhuthaly. "Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alharthi, Hareth Hamoud, Moayad Noor Iskandar, Ammar Sami Felemban, and Saud Khalef Alhuthaly. "Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.1 (2021), 381-386. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alharthi, H. H., Iskandar, . M. N., Felemban, . A. S. & Alhuthaly, . S. K. (2021) Transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2020: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (1), 381-386. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1605964243


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