Original Article

IJMDC. 2021; 5(6): 1276-1281

Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdul-Aziz Al Hadlaq, Heetaf Al Oqaily, Ghadda Al Sallum, Aram Al Masaud, Ali E. Mansour, Osama Al Wutayd.

ABSTRACT

Background: Refractive errors are one of the most leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. It is caused by eyes inability to focus the light properly therefore causing a blurred vision. There are three major types: myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. We aim to determine the prevalence of refractive errors among medical students at Qassim University, to identify types of refractive errors and to assess the association between near work hours per day and the presence of refractive errors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Qassim university, Saudi Arabia, outpatient clinics. Using sample size calculation sample size of 362 students was approximated. Students were examined in the ophthalmology clinic at Qassim university outpatient clinics for the presence and the degree of refractive error. Students were interviewed by trained interviewers about demographic data, general health status, and history of refractive errors and associated risk factors. Results: A total of 603 medical students participated in the study of which 568 (94.0%) had refractive errors and the remaining 35 (6.0%) students were Plano (normal). The most refractive errors in the examined sample were myopia and astigmatism (56.3% and 22.4%, respectively) and these were more prevalent among the age group of 19-22 years old. Myopia was the common errors of refraction among female and more among the fifth year. There was a significant increase in astigmatism among juniors in medical school (p = 0.002). Also,the most significant risk factors among studied sample which increases in myopia and astigmatism were daily outdoor activities less than or equally to 1 hour (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively) and the daily outdoor activities more than 3 hours during childhood (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive errors among studied sample was 94% which is one of the highest rates reported, myopia is the most common, regular screening program and checkup for early detection and correction is recommended to prevent impairment of the vision.

Keywords:
Refractive errors, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, medical students


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Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia


Authors
Abdul-Aziz Al Hadlaq
Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Heetaf Al Oqaily
College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
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Ghadda Al Sallum
College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
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Aram Al Masaud
College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
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Ali E Mansour
Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al- Azhar University, Egypt
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Osama Al Wutayd
Department of Family & Community Medicine, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
. Abdul-Aziz Al Hadlaq, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.; 2913@qu.edu.sa

Publication history
Received 27 Apr 2021
Accepted 20 May 2021
Published online 14 Jun 2021
Published in print 29 Jun 2021

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Pubmed Style

Hadlaq AA, Oqaily HA, Sallum GA, Masaud AA, Mansour AE, Wutayd OA. Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2021; 5(6): 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


Web Style

Hadlaq AA, Oqaily HA, Sallum GA, Masaud AA, Mansour AE, Wutayd OA. Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=77151 [Access: September 19, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Hadlaq AA, Oqaily HA, Sallum GA, Masaud AA, Mansour AE, Wutayd OA. Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2021; 5(6): 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Hadlaq AA, Oqaily HA, Sallum GA, Masaud AA, Mansour AE, Wutayd OA. Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2021), [cited September 19, 2021]; 5(6): 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


Harvard Style

Hadlaq, A. A., Oqaily, . H. A., Sallum, . G. A., Masaud, . A. A., Mansour, . A. E. & Wutayd, . O. A. (2021) Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 5 (6), 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


Turabian Style

Hadlaq, Abdul-Aziz Al, Heetaf Al Oqaily, Ghadda Al Sallum, Aram Al Masaud, Ali E. Mansour, and Osama Al Wutayd. 2021. Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (6), 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


Chicago Style

Hadlaq, Abdul-Aziz Al, Heetaf Al Oqaily, Ghadda Al Sallum, Aram Al Masaud, Ali E. Mansour, and Osama Al Wutayd. "Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Hadlaq, Abdul-Aziz Al, Heetaf Al Oqaily, Ghadda Al Sallum, Aram Al Masaud, Ali E. Mansour, and Osama Al Wutayd. "Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.6 (2021), 1276-1281. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Hadlaq, A. A., Oqaily, . H. A., Sallum, . G. A., Masaud, . A. A., Mansour, . A. E. & Wutayd, . O. A. (2021) Refractive errors prevalence among medical students at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (6), 1276-1281. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1619557904


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