Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1924-1937

The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Bahathiq, Ahmed Almadaabgy, Kaled Marzogi, Abdulmajeed Mohammed Alnahdi, Hussein Hani Mufti, Khalid Alsharif.

ABSTRACT

Background: Smartphones have become an essential part of our life. The frequent smartphone use for communication or internet access causes smartphone addiction that might cause musculoskeletal disorders in the hand, wrist, and thumb. The present study aimed at assessing the association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among Umm Al-Qura University students, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among college students at Umm Al-Qura University. A total of 349 persons responded. The data were analyzed using STATA 14.2 software; continuous variables were presented as mean; and SD and intergroup differences were compared using the t-test. Categorical variables were presented as numbers and percentages. Ordinal data were compared using the chi-squared test for trend. Paired binary data were compared using the McNemar test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: Most of the participants were males, and most of them were in the third year of study. Most participants strongly agreed that they could not tolerate not having their phones (33.2%) and used mobile phones more than they expect daily (28.1%). A significant association was found between age, gender, and year of study and the pain while using the hand. Conclusions: Prolonged use of smartphones resulted in the emerging smartphone addiction phenomena that have caused musculoskeletal discomfort in the hand, wrist, and thumb, which is considered as the common risk factor of repetitive use of a smartphone. Repetitive use of a smartphone negatively impacts dominant hand activities and daily duties. A significant association was recorded between the pain/difficulties while using hand and age, gender, and year of study.

Keywords:
Smartphone addiction, hand pain, thumb, wrist pain.


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The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia


Authors
Mohammed Bahathiq
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ahmed Almadaabgy
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Kaled Marzogi
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulmajeed Mohammed Alnahdi
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Hussein Hani Mufti
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Khalid Alsharif
Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Mohammed Bahathiq, Medical Intern, College of medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.; Bahathiq.m@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 03 Oct 2020
Accepted 14 Oct 2020
Published online 24 Oct 2020
Published in print 05 Nov 2020

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Pubmed Style

Bahathiq M, Almadaabgy A, Marzogi K, Alnahdi AM, Mufti HH, Alsharif K. The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


Web Style

Bahathiq M, Almadaabgy A, Marzogi K, Alnahdi AM, Mufti HH, Alsharif K. The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=6002 [Access: January 24, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Bahathiq M, Almadaabgy A, Marzogi K, Alnahdi AM, Mufti HH, Alsharif K. The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(11): 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Bahathiq M, Almadaabgy A, Marzogi K, Alnahdi AM, Mufti HH, Alsharif K. The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2020), [cited January 24, 2021]; 4(11): 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


Harvard Style

Bahathiq, M., Almadaabgy, . A., Marzogi, . K., Alnahdi, . A. M., Mufti, . H. H. & Alsharif, . K. (2020) The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 4 (11), 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


Turabian Style

Bahathiq, Mohammed, Ahmed Almadaabgy, Kaled Marzogi, Abdulmajeed Mohammed Alnahdi, Hussein Hani Mufti, and Khalid Alsharif. 2020. The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (11), 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


Chicago Style

Bahathiq, Mohammed, Ahmed Almadaabgy, Kaled Marzogi, Abdulmajeed Mohammed Alnahdi, Hussein Hani Mufti, and Khalid Alsharif. "The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Bahathiq, Mohammed, Ahmed Almadaabgy, Kaled Marzogi, Abdulmajeed Mohammed Alnahdi, Hussein Hani Mufti, and Khalid Alsharif. "The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.11 (2020), 1924-1937. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Bahathiq, M., Almadaabgy, . A., Marzogi, . K., Alnahdi, . A. M., Mufti, . H. H. & Alsharif, . K. (2020) The association between smartphones and thumb/wrist pain among students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (11), 1924-1937. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1601759283


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