IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 390-394

Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review

Authors: Rwan Emad Radi, Elaf Tariq Damanhouri, Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui.

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is commonly known among diabetic patients, which causes blindness. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema are the most common complications of DR that adversely impact the vision. Therefore, the current review aimed to investigate the causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatments of DR. Scientific articles linked to the present topic were obtained using an online searching process. The searching process included several scientific websites such as Google Scholar and PubMed. We obtained 17 articles that matched with the current subject and were written in English. Of those 17 articles, six were excluded as they were published before 2000, or did not focus on the current topic, or were written in a language other than English; therefore, only 11 papers were included, and they were published till 2020. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria, and the discussion of the subject was carried out under the main titles. DR is the most common microvascular/blinding complication of diabetes. PDR and macular edema are the most common complications of DR that adversely impact the vision of diabetic patients. Therefore, regular retinal investigations are crucial among diabetic patients. Laser photocoagulation is effective for treatment and prevention strategies. New therapeutic options should be implemented to improve the ophthalmic care of diabetic patients. Also, to reduce the ophthalmic complicationsí risks, blood pressure and other metabolic functioning should be controlled.

Keywords:
Diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, laser photocoagulation, ophthalmic complications


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Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review


Authors
Rwan Emad Radi
Medical Intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Elaf Tariq Damanhouri
Medical Intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui
Professor of Community Medicine, Department of Community Medicine & Pilgrimage Services, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Rwan Emad Radi, Medical Intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia.; rwan_radi@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 06 Dec 2020
Accepted 21 Dec 2020
Published online 04 Jan 2021
Published in print 11 Jan 2021

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Pubmed Style

Radi RE, Damanhouri ET, Siddiqui MI. Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


Web Style

Radi RE, Damanhouri ET, Siddiqui MI. Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=22881 [Access: March 07, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Radi RE, Damanhouri ET, Siddiqui MI. Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. IJMDC. 2021; 5(1): 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Radi RE, Damanhouri ET, Siddiqui MI. Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. IJMDC. (2021), [cited March 07, 2021]; 5(1): 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


Harvard Style

Radi, R. E., Damanhouri, . E. T. & Siddiqui, . M. I. (2021) Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. IJMDC, 5 (1), 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


Turabian Style

Radi, Rwan Emad, Elaf Tariq Damanhouri, and Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui. 2021. Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (1), 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


Chicago Style

Radi, Rwan Emad, Elaf Tariq Damanhouri, and Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui. "Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5 (2021), 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Radi, Rwan Emad, Elaf Tariq Damanhouri, and Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui. "Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 5.1 (2021), 390-394. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Radi, R. E., Damanhouri, . E. T. & Siddiqui, . M. I. (2021) Diabetic retinopathy causes, symptoms, and complications: a review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 5 (1), 390-394. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1607272221


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