E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Review Article

Online Publishing Date:
25 / 12 / 2023

 


Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review

Tariq Mohamed Shaqran, Abdallah Ahmed Alsuliman, Hatem Yousef Alzhrani, Ibrahim Mohammad Alkhrizi, Zainab Yusuf Ahmed, Ahmed Maeen Al Ismail, Khalid Muslih Alsahafi, Nadeen Abdullah Boubshait, Shahad Saad Aljoaid, Qasem Abdulrahman Mahzari.


Abstract
Conn syndrome, named after J. W. Conn in 1955, denotes a condition marked by hypertension with an aldosterone-producing adenoma. This adenoma triggers heightened aldosterone secretion from the adrenal glands, resulting in suppressed plasma renin, hypertension, and hypokalemia. This systematic study aimed to explore the prevalence, risk factors, and management of Conn's syndrome. PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases were scrutinized for English-language articles from 2010 to 2023, adhering to PRISMA guidelines. Among 142 studies identified, 10 met the criteria for inclusion. Surveys and analyses of national databases were the predominant research methods. Formerly deemed uncommon, Conn's syndrome now accounts for 5–15% of hypertensive patients. The deleterious impact of aldosterone extends beyond hypertension, affecting various organs. Timely intervention, whether pharmacological (aldosterone antagonists) or surgical (adrenalectomy), proves effective in mitigating these effects. Early diagnosis and appropriate testing are imperative. Salt intake reduction is crucial, given its association with aldosterone-mediated damage. However, patients often exceed the recommended 5 grams per day, posing a challenge for lifestyle interventions. Adrenalectomy, in addition to lowering cardiovascular risk, naturally reduces salt intake. Clinical research underscores the role of dietary salt in predicting cardiovascular risk, emphasizing its significance even with adequate treatment.

Key words: Conn syndrome, Cushing syndrome, aldosterone, cortisol, adrenal tumor, primary aldosteronism, hypertension.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Shaqran TM, Alsuliman AA, Alzhrani HY, Alkhrizi IM, Ahmed ZY, Ismail AMA, Alsahafi KM, Boubshait NA, Aljoaid SS, Mahzari QA. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. IJMDC. 2024; 8(1): 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517


Web Style

Shaqran TM, Alsuliman AA, Alzhrani HY, Alkhrizi IM, Ahmed ZY, Ismail AMA, Alsahafi KM, Boubshait NA, Aljoaid SS, Mahzari QA. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=180458 [Access: March 26, 2024]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Shaqran TM, Alsuliman AA, Alzhrani HY, Alkhrizi IM, Ahmed ZY, Ismail AMA, Alsahafi KM, Boubshait NA, Aljoaid SS, Mahzari QA. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. IJMDC. 2024; 8(1): 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Shaqran TM, Alsuliman AA, Alzhrani HY, Alkhrizi IM, Ahmed ZY, Ismail AMA, Alsahafi KM, Boubshait NA, Aljoaid SS, Mahzari QA. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. IJMDC. (2024), [cited March 26, 2024]; 8(1): 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



Harvard Style

Shaqran, T. M., Alsuliman, . A. A., Alzhrani, . H. Y., Alkhrizi, . I. M., Ahmed, . Z. Y., Ismail, . A. M. A., Alsahafi, . K. M., Boubshait, . N. A., Aljoaid, . S. S. & Mahzari, . Q. A. (2024) Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. IJMDC, 8 (1), 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



Turabian Style

Shaqran, Tariq Mohamed, Abdallah Ahmed Alsuliman, Hatem Yousef Alzhrani, Ibrahim Mohammad Alkhrizi, Zainab Yusuf Ahmed, Ahmed Maeen Al Ismail, Khalid Muslih Alsahafi, Nadeen Abdullah Boubshait, Shahad Saad Aljoaid, and Qasem Abdulrahman Mahzari. 2024. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (1), 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



Chicago Style

Shaqran, Tariq Mohamed, Abdallah Ahmed Alsuliman, Hatem Yousef Alzhrani, Ibrahim Mohammad Alkhrizi, Zainab Yusuf Ahmed, Ahmed Maeen Al Ismail, Khalid Muslih Alsahafi, Nadeen Abdullah Boubshait, Shahad Saad Aljoaid, and Qasem Abdulrahman Mahzari. "Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8 (2024), 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Shaqran, Tariq Mohamed, Abdallah Ahmed Alsuliman, Hatem Yousef Alzhrani, Ibrahim Mohammad Alkhrizi, Zainab Yusuf Ahmed, Ahmed Maeen Al Ismail, Khalid Muslih Alsahafi, Nadeen Abdullah Boubshait, Shahad Saad Aljoaid, and Qasem Abdulrahman Mahzari. "Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 8.1 (2024), 487-495. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Shaqran, T. M., Alsuliman, . A. A., Alzhrani, . H. Y., Alkhrizi, . I. M., Ahmed, . Z. Y., Ismail, . A. M. A., Alsahafi, . K. M., Boubshait, . N. A., Aljoaid, . S. S. & Mahzari, . Q. A. (2024) Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Conn's syndrome; A Systematic Review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 8 (1), 487-495. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1702013517





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