E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Review Article

Online Publishing Date:
05 / 11 / 2023

 


Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review

Ali Mohammed Alferdos, Hind Ameen Alshankiti, Amenah Hyder Aljumah, Fatimah Abdulrahim Alahmad, Jehan Akbar Kimawi, Nada Dhafer Albishi, Rawan Yousef Bonayan, Safa Adil Osman Mohamed, Zainab Ahmed Ayoob, Sultan Farhan Alharshani.


Abstract
Gynecomastia, a benign expansion of the glandular tissue in the male breast, is frequent in middle-aged and older males as well as in infancy and adolescence. Male obese patients frequently exhibit pseudogynecomastia, which is defined as fat-deposition without glandular proliferation. Its causes can be anything from uncommon neoplasms to harmless physiological processes. This systemic review aimed to examine surgical management strategies for gynecomastia. Data sources were PubMed/Medline and Embase. This review investigated English-language articles (from 2010 to 2023) according to the PRISMA guidelines. Surveys and analyses of national databases were the most widely used methods. The research identified 395 studies, out of which five were eligible for inclusion in the current analysis. Since estrogen and androgens are in balance in males, gynecomastia can be caused by any illness or medicine that raises or lowers the amount of circulating estrogen or androgen, respectively, resulting in an increase in the ratio of estrogen to androgen. Because there are so many potential causes, including neoplasms, a comprehensive history and physical examination are essential. Following the diagnosis of gynecomastia, treating the underlying cause is necessary. If underlying reason is not found then careful observation is necessary. Medical treatment might be an option if gynecomastia is severe and have started recently; if this proves unsuccessful, glandular tissue might be required to be removed surgically.

Key words: Epidemiology, causes, management, gynecomastia, systematic review


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Ali Mohammed Alferdos
Articles by Hind Ameen Alshankiti
Articles by Amenah Hyder Aljumah
Articles by Fatimah Abdulrahim Alahmad
Articles by Jehan Akbar Kimawi
Articles by Nada Dhafer Albishi
Articles by Rawan Yousef Bonayan
Articles by Safa Adil Osman Mohamed
Articles by Zainab Ahmed Ayoob
Articles by Sultan Farhan Alharshani
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alferdos AM, Alshankiti HA, Aljumah AH, Alahmad FA, Kimawi JA, Albishi ND, Bonayan RY, Mohamed SAO, Ayoob ZA, Alharshani SF. Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. IJMDC. 2023; 7(12): 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269


Web Style

Alferdos AM, Alshankiti HA, Aljumah AH, Alahmad FA, Kimawi JA, Albishi ND, Bonayan RY, Mohamed SAO, Ayoob ZA, Alharshani SF. Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=172277 [Access: June 05, 2024]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alferdos AM, Alshankiti HA, Aljumah AH, Alahmad FA, Kimawi JA, Albishi ND, Bonayan RY, Mohamed SAO, Ayoob ZA, Alharshani SF. Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. IJMDC. 2023; 7(12): 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alferdos AM, Alshankiti HA, Aljumah AH, Alahmad FA, Kimawi JA, Albishi ND, Bonayan RY, Mohamed SAO, Ayoob ZA, Alharshani SF. Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. IJMDC. (2023), [cited June 05, 2024]; 7(12): 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



Harvard Style

Alferdos, A. M., Alshankiti, . H. A., Aljumah, . A. H., Alahmad, . F. A., Kimawi, . J. A., Albishi, . N. D., Bonayan, . R. Y., Mohamed, . S. A. O., Ayoob, . Z. A. & Alharshani, . S. F. (2023) Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. IJMDC, 7 (12), 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



Turabian Style

Alferdos, Ali Mohammed, Hind Ameen Alshankiti, Amenah Hyder Aljumah, Fatimah Abdulrahim Alahmad, Jehan Akbar Kimawi, Nada Dhafer Albishi, Rawan Yousef Bonayan, Safa Adil Osman Mohamed, Zainab Ahmed Ayoob, and Sultan Farhan Alharshani. 2023. Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 7 (12), 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



Chicago Style

Alferdos, Ali Mohammed, Hind Ameen Alshankiti, Amenah Hyder Aljumah, Fatimah Abdulrahim Alahmad, Jehan Akbar Kimawi, Nada Dhafer Albishi, Rawan Yousef Bonayan, Safa Adil Osman Mohamed, Zainab Ahmed Ayoob, and Sultan Farhan Alharshani. "Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 7 (2023), 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alferdos, Ali Mohammed, Hind Ameen Alshankiti, Amenah Hyder Aljumah, Fatimah Abdulrahim Alahmad, Jehan Akbar Kimawi, Nada Dhafer Albishi, Rawan Yousef Bonayan, Safa Adil Osman Mohamed, Zainab Ahmed Ayoob, and Sultan Farhan Alharshani. "Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 7.12 (2023), 1993-1999. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alferdos, A. M., Alshankiti, . H. A., Aljumah, . A. H., Alahmad, . F. A., Kimawi, . J. A., Albishi, . N. D., Bonayan, . R. Y., Mohamed, . S. A. O., Ayoob, . Z. A. & Alharshani, . S. F. (2023) Epidemiology, causes and management of gynecomastia; a systematic review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 7 (12), 1993-1999. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1696606269





Most Viewed Articles
Most Accessed Articles

  • Marginal adaptation of fixed prosthodontics
    Shahad Mohammed Halawani, Sahar Amer Al-Harbi
    IJMDC. 2017; 1(2): 78-84
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.1.2.7

  • Parasites in central nervous system
    Amal Ahmed Mohamed, Asmaa Mohamed Mansour
    IJMDC. 2017; 1(2): 72-77
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.1.2.6

  • Non-diabetic retinopathy: a case report
    Hassan F. Alkwikbi, Nabil Mamon Abdelfattah, Haithem Mamon Abdelfattah
    IJMDC. 2017; 1(1): 33-37
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.1.1.6

  • Vitamin D deficiency among high school female students in Riyadh
    Sahar Mohsen Aldhafeeri, Fatemah Ibraheem Alrawaji, Abrar Mubarak Algharbi, Alanoud Abdullah Alhessan, Ayat Sami Qabaja, Ghaleah Abdulaziz Alnassar, Ghaliah Ofayn Alsulami, Mashael Belal Alrubaian, Norah Abdulaziz Alhatim, Salehah Salih Alotaibi, Zahra Ali Alkhamees
    IJMDC. 2017; 1(1): 18-23
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.1.1.4

  • Prognosis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) after multiple events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    Baraa Faiez Rajab, Anwar Essa Alamrim, Ali Essa Alamri
    IJMDC. 2019; 3(5): 474-479
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1546551993

  • Most Downloaded
    Top Downloaded Articles

  • Anti-IL-17 markedly inhibited the in vitro granuloma induced by Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen.
    Asmaa Ezz, Irene S. Gmail, Fatma Elzahraa H. Salem, Rabab Salama, Soad Nady
    IJMDC. 2018; 2(January 2018): 38-46
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.2.1.7

  • Vitamin D deficiency among high school female students in Riyadh
    Sahar Mohsen Aldhafeeri, Fatemah Ibraheem Alrawaji, Abrar Mubarak Algharbi, Alanoud Abdullah Alhessan, Ayat Sami Qabaja, Ghaleah Abdulaziz Alnassar, Ghaliah Ofayn Alsulami, Mashael Belal Alrubaian, Norah Abdulaziz Alhatim, Salehah Salih Alotaibi, Zahra Ali Alkhamees
    IJMDC. 2017; 1(1): 18-23
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.1.1.4

  • Antibiotic Resistance Crisis
    Nuha Saad Mobarki, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, Ahmad Hattan Hattan
    IJMDC. 2019; 3(6): 561-564
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699

  • The knowledge of mothers about children malnutrition and associated factors
    Anas Abdulrahman Aljohani, Mujahid Abdulrahman Aljohani
    IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 7-11
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1541620358

  • Knowledge and attitude of caregivers of cerebral palsy children in Riyadh city
    Abdulaziz Alruwaished, Baleegh Ali, Lubna Abdullah Alhowaimil , Abaraa adullah Alhowaimil, Najd Abdullah Alhowaimil, Aminah Alessa
    IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 12-17
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1547833051

  • Most Cited Articles
    Most Cited Articles

  • Antibiotic Resistance Crisis
    Nuha Saad Mobarki, Buthaina Abdullah Almerabi, Ahmad Hattan Hattan
    IJMDC. 2019; 3(6): 561-564
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1549060699
    Cited : 34 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among diabetes mellitus patients in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia
    AMohammed Elamin Mukrim, Nujud Muteb D. Alshammari, Wurud Muteb D. Alshammari, Maali Subhi T. Alshammari, Yousef Nasif R. Alshammari, Abdulaziz Sael M. Alshammari, Maisa Hamad F. Alanazi, Abdulelah Abdulrhman F. Alzammam, Muharib Mana M. Alshammari, Slwa Khaled Abu Asyah, Aseel Jamal Alzuhayri, Mushref Saeid Alshammari
    IJMDC. 2019; 3(3): 229-233
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542576396
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination toward breast cancer among female students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Abdullah Nasser Alomair, Dania Ghazi Felemban, Mohannad Sami Felemban, Jameel Abdullah Awadain, Ammar Saud Altowairqi, Nawaf Fawzan Alfawzan, Fatimah Mohammed Almazayen, Abdulrahman Jalwi Korkoman, Nawaf Saad Alrusayyis
    IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 429-434
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1576668182
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Population awareness about rheumatoid arthritis in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia
    Ahmad Ali Hazzazi, Mohssen Hassen Ageeli, Ahmed Ali Muyidi, Abdulaziz Mohammad Abulgasim, Abdullah Ahmad Yateemi, Nabil Alhakami
    IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 668-675
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1576010943
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Prevalence and factors associated with depression among health care workers in National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, KSA
    Noor Mohammad AlFahhad
    IJMDC. 2018; 2(September 2018): 92-96
    » Abstract » doi: 10.24911/IJMDC.51-1526306040
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]