E-ISSN 1658-7820
 

Original Article 


Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis

Mohammad A. Jareebi, Mohammed O. Shami, Nawaf F. Gharawi, Mohammed Ali Madkhali, Ghadeer Ahmad Alneel, Faisal A. Othathi, Abdulaziz Ali M. Othathi, Ali Hussain Mahzari, Abdulrahman Y Sumayli, Nora Yahya Somili, Hassan M. Alsharif, Mohammed I. Dabsh.

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the causal relationship between the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) and modifiable lifestyle factors using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis.
Methods: The study assessed exposures and outcomes using genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in earlier studies from different consortia. This study evaluated a number of exposures, including vitamin D levels, age at smoking initiation, smoking intensity, cheese, salad, processed meat and coffee intake, BMI, and lipid biomarkers. MS is the outcome of this paper. The genetic data for MS were obtained from UK Biobank, FinnGen, and the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC).
Results: The study included 838 SNPs for all risk factors, with sample sizes ranging from 23,205 to 607,291 per risk factor, obtained from various consortia. The results showed that in the IMSGC consortium, a genetic predisposition to vitamin D was significantly associated with a 33% lower risk of MS (OR = 0.67, p = 0.05). In contrast, there would be a 1-SD rise in the odds of MS for each increase in genetically estimated BMI and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (OR = 1.31, p = 0.05, and OR=1.11, p = 0.05, respectively).
Conclusion: This study suggested that vitamin D level, BMI, and LDL might be causally related to the development of MS. These findings might have significant implications for the advancement of MS preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Key words: Multiple sclerosis, Mendelian randomization, vitamin D, BMI, LDL.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Jareebi MA, Shami MO, Gharawi NF, Madkhali MA, Alneel GA, Othathi FA, Othathi AAM, Mahzari AH, Sumayli AY, Somili NY, Alsharif HM, Dabsh MI. Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. IJMDC. 2023; 7(10): 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756


Web Style

Jareebi MA, Shami MO, Gharawi NF, Madkhali MA, Alneel GA, Othathi FA, Othathi AAM, Mahzari AH, Sumayli AY, Somili NY, Alsharif HM, Dabsh MI. Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=154353 [Access: October 02, 2023]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Jareebi MA, Shami MO, Gharawi NF, Madkhali MA, Alneel GA, Othathi FA, Othathi AAM, Mahzari AH, Sumayli AY, Somili NY, Alsharif HM, Dabsh MI. Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. IJMDC. 2023; 7(10): 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Jareebi MA, Shami MO, Gharawi NF, Madkhali MA, Alneel GA, Othathi FA, Othathi AAM, Mahzari AH, Sumayli AY, Somili NY, Alsharif HM, Dabsh MI. Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. IJMDC. (2023), [cited October 02, 2023]; 7(10): 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



Harvard Style

Jareebi, M. A., Shami, . M. O., Gharawi, . N. F., Madkhali, . M. A., Alneel, . G. A., Othathi, . F. A., Othathi, . A. A. M., Mahzari, . A. H., Sumayli, . A. Y., Somili, . N. Y., Alsharif, . H. M. & Dabsh, . M. I. (2023) Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. IJMDC, 7 (10), 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



Turabian Style

Jareebi, Mohammad A., Mohammed O. Shami, Nawaf F. Gharawi, Mohammed Ali Madkhali, Ghadeer Ahmad Alneel, Faisal A. Othathi, Abdulaziz Ali M. Othathi, Ali Hussain Mahzari, Abdulrahman Y Sumayli, Nora Yahya Somili, Hassan M. Alsharif, and Mohammed I. Dabsh. 2023. Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 7 (10), 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



Chicago Style

Jareebi, Mohammad A., Mohammed O. Shami, Nawaf F. Gharawi, Mohammed Ali Madkhali, Ghadeer Ahmad Alneel, Faisal A. Othathi, Abdulaziz Ali M. Othathi, Ali Hussain Mahzari, Abdulrahman Y Sumayli, Nora Yahya Somili, Hassan M. Alsharif, and Mohammed I. Dabsh. "Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 7 (2023), 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Jareebi, Mohammad A., Mohammed O. Shami, Nawaf F. Gharawi, Mohammed Ali Madkhali, Ghadeer Ahmad Alneel, Faisal A. Othathi, Abdulaziz Ali M. Othathi, Ali Hussain Mahzari, Abdulrahman Y Sumayli, Nora Yahya Somili, Hassan M. Alsharif, and Mohammed I. Dabsh. "Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 7.10 (2023), 1339-1344. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Jareebi, M. A., Shami, . M. O., Gharawi, . N. F., Madkhali, . M. A., Alneel, . G. A., Othathi, . F. A., Othathi, . A. A. M., Mahzari, . A. H., Sumayli, . A. Y., Somili, . N. Y., Alsharif, . H. M. & Dabsh, . M. I. (2023) Assessing the causal relationship between modifiable risk factors, including vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 7 (10), 1339-1344. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1684898756





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