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Original Research (Original Article) 


Ahmed Khalid Alghutayghit et al, 2020;4(2):358–364.

International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries

Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Khalid Alghutayghit1, Abdulsalam Muteb Alanazi1, Hany Abdelfatah Elhady2, Saleh Ahmed Alzaid1, Ghalib Mohammed Alsulami1, Anas Mohammed Alomair1, Khalid Sultan Alwasem1, Thamer Abdullah Alanazy1*, Omar Ibrahim Madhi Almadhi1, Rayan Riyadh Abdullah Aldandani1

Correspondence to: Thamer Abdullah Alanazy

*Medical Student, Jouf University, Skaka, Saudi Arabia.

Email: thamir_1111 [at] hotmail.com

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article.

Received: 05 December 2019 | Accepted: 24 December 2019


ABSTRACT

Background:

Obesity by far is a new millennial dilemma and a noticeable gap lies within the literature about the extents of knowledge of bariatric surgeries among the general population and more in particular, in obese individuals regardless of candidacy of bariatric surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward obesity and bariatric surgeries.


Methodology:

This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 390 adult Saudi population during April to September 2019 in Aljouf region, through a web-based version of the questionnaire. A convenience sampling technique was used.


Results:

Out of total 390 participants, 43 participants (11%) reported that they had a previous bariatric surgery, and almost 350 (89.7%) were aware that being overweight or obese could cause significant medical problems. A total of 303 (77.7%) stated that there was a difference between obesity and morbid obesity. Most of participants (72.1%) selected sleeve gastrectomy as the single most effective method. Around half of the participants (50.3%) thought that the bariatric surgery was a medical procedure and 135 (34.6%) thought it was a cosmetic procedure. Significant correlations (p < 0.005) were found between education level and the following variables: awareness of medical problems that are caused by obesity (−0.164, p < 0.001), awareness of the role of bariatric surgery in weight reduction (−0.104, p < 0.039), and awareness of the difference between obesity and morbid obesity.


Conclusion:

There are still misconceptions among the public towards bariatric surgeries. Tremendous efforts should be taken to improve the patient–doctor discussion, which may lead to better discussions and outcomes.


Keywords:

Obesity, bariatric surgery, gastric sleeve, bypass surgery.


Introduction

These days, obesity is a growing health problem and considered as a global pandemic [1]. Thus, diseases associated with obesity are becoming more significant health problems than infectious diseases and malnutrition, in the developing countries [2,3]. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the obesity has increased to double since 1980, globally [4]. In Saudi Arabia, out of three adults one is obese and out of ten one at least suffers from morbid obesity [5].

The body mass index (BMI) is used by WHO as a standard quantitative parameter to define obesity and overweight. It defines obesity as a BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 and overweight as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. The major risk factors of obesity are genetics, environmental factors, physical inactivity, energy intake, fetal nutrition, and cultural elements [3,4]. There are many serious health conditions caused by obesity and overweight, including cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke, hypertension, and other heart diseases, diabetes mellitus; musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis; some types of cancers; and sleep-breathing abnormalities as obstructive sleep apnea [4,6]. One of the most important complication of obesity is metabolic syndrome which comprises type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance [7,8].

Healthy life style, hygienic diet, drugs, and bariatric surgery are considered as management strategies of obesity. Measures to lose weight with lifestyle-based conservative methods failed in patients with BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 or BMI ranging between 35 and 40 kg/m2 with co-morbidities; however, bariatric surgery becomes the most effective treatment for obesity. It leads to a significant weight loss and eases co-morbid illness in eligible patients. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass are the most common techniques to perform a bariatric surgery. However, globally, the number of eligible patients who undergone bariatric surgery was low. However, bariatric surgery is still not well studied as an alternative weight loss method [911].

In Saudi Arabia, a study was conducted in Jeddah with a sample size of 1,129 participants. The results showed that approximately 22.7% of the participants were unaware of the bariatric surgery procedure. However, only 18.9% considered it to be a cosmetic procedure and 41.2% were unwilling to seek a bariatric surgeon’s help if diagnosed with morbid obesity [12].

In another cross-sectional study, distributed among 790 adult Saudi population showed that there was a good knowledge about obesity but low favorable beliefs about bariatric surgery (55.7%) and only 44.3% had favorable beliefs about the surgery. The favorable beliefs about bariatric surgery were significantly associated with female gender and subjects having high BMI scores [13]. Hence, this study was conducted to asses and raise the awareness about bariatric surgery, especially among obese patients in Aljouf region.


Subject and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 390 adult Saudi population in Aljouf region, through a convenience sampling technique, during April 2019 to September 2019. A pre-validated questionnaire was used; it was reworked to suite the study population. Prior to distribution, the questionnaire was translated to Arabic. The recruited participants filled a web-based version of the questionnaire (Google survey). The participation was voluntary for the residents of Aljouf region. The SPSS version 20.0.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used for descriptive statistics and data analysis.


Results

The total sample size was 390 participants; out of which 63.1% were males. Majority of the participants (40.5%) were aged 18–25 years. The highest educational level was elementary school in 7 participants (1.8%), and middle school in 22 (5.6%) participants, high school in 76 (19.5%) participants, almost 243 (62.3%) participants attended college, and postgraduate level was completed by 42 (10.8%) participants. Forty-three participants (11.0%) reported that they had a previous bariatric surgery (Table 1).

The mean weight of participants was 78.81 ± 22.88 (range: 40–200), the mean height 78.81 ± 22.88 (range: 139–198), and the mean BMI 27.49 ± 6.72 (range: 15.5–63.8). Seven participants (1.8%) were underweight, 158 (40.5%) were normal, 114 (29.2%) were overweight, 67 (17.2%) were obese, 27 (6.9%) were severely obese, and 17 (4.4%) were morbidly obese (Table 2).

Out of 390 participants, 350 (89.7%) were aware that being overweight or obese could cause significant medical problems. A total of 303 (77.7%) stated that there was a difference between obesity and morbid obesity. Most of participants (n = 281, 72.1%) selected sleeve gastrectomy as the single most effective method for long-term management of morbid obesity, while 65 (16.7%) selected gastric band and 44 (11.3) selected gastric bypass surgery (Table 3).

Table 1. Characteristics of the study population.

Number Percentage%
Age
18–25 158 40.5
26–35 125 32.1
36–45 53 13.6
46–55 33 8.5
56–65 13 3.3
66–75 8 2.1
Had previous bariatric surgery
Yes 43 11.0
No 347 89.0
Gender
Male 246 63.1
Female 144 36.9
Highest educational level
Elementary school 7 1.8
Middle school 22 5.6
High school 76 19.5
College 243 62.3
Postgraduate 42 10.8

Overall, 355 (91%) participants were aware that there are surgical methods to reduce weight. A total of 239 (61.3%) correctly identified the definition of bariatric surgery and 292 (74.9%) knew someone who underwent bariatric surgery. Around half of participants (N = 196, 50.3%) thought that bariatric surgery was a medical procedure and 135 (34.6%) thought it was a cosmetic procedure. Regarding the single most effective method for long-term management of morbid obesity, the answer was diet in 134 (34.4%), exercise in 154 (39.5%), slimming centers in 18 (4.6%), medications in 11 (2.8%), and surgery in 42 (10.8%). A total of 159 (40.8%) correctly identified when bariatric surgery was needed. Of participants, 196 (50.3%) thought the complication rate of bariatric surgery to be 20%–30% and 205 (52.6%) reported that they would recommend bariatric surgery to someone they know (Table 4).

Table 2. Anthropometric measures of the study population.

Mean ± SD Range
Mean height (cm) 168.67 ± 8.88 139–198
Mean weight (kg) 78.81 ± 22.88 40–200
BMI 27.49 ± 6.72 15.5–63.8
BMI classification Frequency Percentage (%)
Underweight (< 18.50) 7 1.8
Normal (18.50–24.99) 158 40.5
Overweight (25–29.99) 114 29.2
Obese (30.00–34.99) 67 17.2
Severely obese (35.00–39.99) 27 6.9
Morbid obese (≥ 40.00) 17 4.4

Table 3. Knowledge about obesity.

Number Percentage%
Do you think being overweight or obese can cause significant medical problems?
Yes 350 89.7
No 40 10.3
What is the single most effective method for long-term management of morbid obesity?
Sleeve gastrectomy 281 72.1
Gastric band 65 16.7
Gastric bypass surgery 44 11.3
Is there a difference between obesity and morbid obesity?
Yes 303 77.7
No 87 22.3

The correlation between the knowledge about bariatric surgery and education level of the study population, significantly correlated (Table 5), and the following variables were analyzed: awareness of medical problems that are caused by obesity (−0.164, p < 0.001), awareness of the role of bariatric surgery in weight reduction (−0.104, p < 0.039), awareness of the difference between obesity and morbid obesity (−0.246, p < 0.001), knowing someone who had bariatric surgery (−0.152, p < 0.003), and awareness of the indications of bariatric surgery (−0.174, p < 0.001).

Considering having a bariatric surgery was significantly correlated with the BMI of study participants, Table 6 shows that the subjects under the category of overweight or higher tend to seek the bariatric surgeon’s help (−0.441, p < 0.001).


Discussion

Based on the very limited information about the public knowledge of bariatric surgeries [14], and to the knowledge obtained from the indexed literature, only one study had investigated the public awareness of bariatric surgeries in Aljouf region [12]. Other studies have focused on bariatric surgeries through the lens of bariatric surgeries candidates alone [14,15]. Given the high prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi population represents the perfect sample to probe.

The term bariatric originates from the Greek word “baros” which means weight. Following the emergence of devastating consequences of uncontrolled obesity [12], there had been a wide interest among scientists in these weight surgeries as they were proven to be a definitive treatment of morbid obesity [16,17]. In Saudi Arabia, for example, despite the well-known consequences of obesity, the overall prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia is around 35.5% [1,5]. In fact, recent reports were expecting an increased upswing of obesity and being overweight likewise [5,16,17].

Moreover, given the growing popularity of bariatric surgeries, it is crucial to assess the public awareness, knowledge, and opinions toward bariatric surgeries and to provide an exponentially clearer picture of factors influencing the choice of bariatric surgery.

In the current study, approximately 63.1% of the studied population were males. This finding is valuable and has been reportedly higher than a recent study by Altaf et al. [12], among Saudi population. This disparity might be influenced by multiple factors, including demographic status, geographical locations, and inconsistencies in the criteria of sample selection as well as in the analytical and sampling techniques used.

The primary objective of the study was to provide an assessment of general population’s knowledge of bariatric surgeries to enhance the doctor-patient discussion regarding treatment options (i.e., bariatric surgery). Thus, findings demonstrated a misconception toward bariatric surgeries, which may lead to a belated utilization of the mentioned surgery. This knowledge deficiency is in alignment with the findings of Altaf et al. [12], who reported a majority of participants may stay away from such surgery due to misinformation. Although as consistent with the previous study [12], a majority of the participants acknowledged the impact of morbid obesity on health, they remained reluctant to approach bariatric surgery as a definitive solution. Therefore, tremendous efforts to clarify the aspects of misinformation of bariatric surgeries should be undertaken by health care providers, policy makers, and the focus of media channels.

Furthermore, the current study also illustrated a broad awareness from participants about bariatric surgery methods. Half of participants thought that bariatric surgery is a medical procedure. However, about 34.6% believed that bariatric surgery was interlinked with cosmetic procedures alone. This was in contrast with Altaf et al. [12], study which confirmed a positive rapport among level of education and individuals’ knowledge about bariatric surgery. About 40% of participants in the current study were able to identify when bariatric surgery was needed. This is consistent with a previous Saudi Arabian study [12], which reported that there was no important relationship between a person’s level of education and knowledge of reasons of why or when was a bariatric surgery a necessity.

Table 4. Knowledge about bariatric surgery.

N Percentage%
Do you know that there are surgical methods to reduce weight?
Yes 355 91.0
No 35 9.0
What is bariatric surgery? 53 13.6
Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine 239 61.3
Removing excess fat from under the skin by suction 33 8.5
The insertion of a balloon that fills the stomach and gives the feeling of satiety quickly 52 13.3
I don’t know 66 16.9
Have anyone you know underwent bariatric surgery?
Yes 292 74.9
No 98 25.1
Do you think that surgery for morbid obesity is a medical procedure or a cosmetic procedure?
Medical 196 50.3
Cosmetic 135 34.6
Not sure 59 15.1
What is the single most effective method for long-term management of morbid obesity?
Diet 134 34.4
Exercise 154 39.5
Slimming centers 18 4.6
Medications 11 2.8
Surgery 42 10.8
I don’t know 34 8.7
When do you think bariatric surgery is needed?
Incorrect 102 26.2
Correct 159 40.8
I don’t know 128 32.8
What is the complications’ percentage of bariatric surgery?
Less than 5% 99 25.4
20%–30% 196 50.3
More than 40% 95 24.4
If you know a morbidly obese person, would you recommend that he/she seeks bariatric surgeon’s help?
Yes 205 52.6
No 185 47.4

There existed a paucity of studies relating lack of knowledge of bariatric surgeries to educational status, but a positive correlation has been observed between lack of knowledge of bariatric surgeries and educational status [12]. Our results are consistent with previous reports; participants who met the criteria of being more educated were more likely to report knowledgeable answers [5,12,16]. Perhaps of even greater importance was that low level of knowledge was interlinked with poor education status; without attribution to participants’ BMI.

The findings of the current study highlighted several public health implications. First, there was a dire need for targeted interventions through media channels to educate the public on the benefits and risks of bariatric surgeries. Second, the noticeable high prevalence of bariatric surgeries may indicate that the current legislative measures are not effective. For instance, many bariatric surgeries were carried out electively with a lack of clear candidacy. Furthermore, many of the obesity solutions presented in the present study were out shadowed by bariatric solutions even though presence of undetermined candidacy, yet it was believed among participants to be the better option.

Table 5. Correlation with educational level.

Correlation with educational level Elementary (n = 7) Middle (n = 22) High school (n = 76) College (n = 243) Post graduate (n = 42) Chi-square p-value Spearman rank correlation (p-value)
Do you think being overweight or obese can cause significant medical problems?
Yes 5 (71.4) 18 (81.8) 65 (85.5) 224 (92.2) 38 (90.5) 0.130 −0.164(0.001)*
No 2 (28.6) 4 (18.2) 11 (14.5) 19 (7.8 4 (9.5)
Do you know that there are surgical methods to reduce weight?
Yes 6 (85.7) 14 (63.6) 68 (89.5) 227 (93.4) 40 (95.2) <0.001 −0.104(0.039)*
No 1 (14.3) 8 (36.4) 8 (10.5) 16 (6.6) 2 (4.8)
Is there a difference between obesity and morbid obesity?
Yes 2 (28.6) 9 (40.9) 53 (69.7) 203 (83.5) 36 (85.7) <0.001 −0.246(<0.001)*
No 5 (71.4) 13 (59.1) 23 (30.3) 40 (16.5) 6 (14.3)
What is bariatric surgery?
Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine 2 (28.6) 6 (27.3) 43 (56.6) 167 (68.7) 21 (50.0) <0.001 −0.080(0.115)
Removing excess fat from under the skin by suction 0 (0.0) 4 (18.2) 10 (13.2) 16 (6.6) 3 (7.1)
The insertion of a balloon that fills the stomach and gives the feeling of satiety quickly 5 (71.4) 7 (31.8) 7 (9.2) 27 (11.1) 6 (14.3)
I don’t know 0 (0.0) 5 (22.7) 16 (21.1) 33 (13.6) 12 (28.6)
Have anyone you know underwent bariatric surgery?
Yes 3 (42.9) 11 (50.0) 52 (68.4) 194 (79.8) 32 (76.2) 0.003 −0.152(0.003)*
No 4 (57.1) 11 (50.0) 24 (31.6) 49 (20.2) 10 (23.8)
Do you think that surgery for morbid obesity is a medical procedure or a cosmetic procedure?
Medical 3 (42.9) 6 (27.3) 36 (47.4) 129 (53.1) 22 (52.4) 0.155 −0.078 (0.126)
Cosmetic 1 (14.3) 10 (45.5) 27 (35.5) 84 (34.6) 13 (31.0)
Not sure 3 (42.9) 6 (27.3) 13 (17.1) 30 (12.3) 7 (16.7)
What is the single most effective method for long-term management of morbid obesity?
Diet 1 (14.3) 4 (18.2) 25 (32.9) 91 (37.4) 13 (31.0) 0.147 −0.078(0.126)
Exercise 2 (28.6) 12 (54.5) 24 (31.6) 100 (41.2) 16 (38.1)
Slimming centers 1 (14.31) 1 (4.5) 2 (2.6) 13 (5.3) 1 (2.4)
Medications 1 (14.31) 2 (9.1) 3 (3.9) 4 (1.6) 1 (2.4)
Surgery 1 (14.31) 1 (4.5) 12 (15.8) 18 (7.4) 7 (16.7)
I don’t know 1 (14.31) 2 (9.1) 10 (3.2) 17 (7.0) 4 (9.5)
When do you think bariatric surgery is needed?
Incorrect 3 (42.9) 9 (42.8) 24 (31.6) 60 (24.7) 6 (14.2) 0.026 − 0.174(0.001)*
Correct 1 (14.31) 5 (23.8) 20 (26.3) 109 (44.9) 24 (57.1)
I don’t know 3 (42.9) 7 (33.3) 32 (42.1) 74 (30.5) 12 (28.6)
What is the complications’ percentage of bariatric surgery?
Less than 5% 1 (14.31) 3 (13.6) 19 (25.0) 69 (28.4) 7 (16.7) 0.307 − 0.068(0.182)
20%–30% 3 (42.9) 11 (50.0) 34 (44.7) 123 (50.6) 25 (59.5)
More than 40% 3 (42.9) 8 (36.4) 23 (23.3) 51 (21.0) 10 (23.8)
If you were or you know a morbidly obese person, would you recommend that he/she seeks a bariatric surgeon’s help?
Yes 1 (14.31) 6 (27.3) 47 (61.8) 128 (52.7) 23 (54.8) 0.014 − 0.040(0.428)
No 6 (85.7) 16 (72.7) 29 (38.2) 115 (47.3) 19 (45.2)

*Significant correlation.

Table 6. Correlation between BMI and intention to have a bariatric surgery.

Underweight Normal Over-weight Obese Severely obese Morbid obese Chi-square p-value Spearman rank correlation (p-value)
Would you seek a bariatric surgeon’s help?
Yes 0 (0.0) 14 (8.9) 13 (11.4) 31 (46.3) 17 (63.0) 13 (76.5) <0.001 −0.441(<0.001)
No 7 (100.0) 144 (91.1) 101 (88.6) 36 (53.7) 10 (30.0) 4 (23.5)

*Significant correlation.

The limitations of the present study included the sampling technique, cross-sectional study design, and self-reported practices only. The nonprobability consecutive sampling may not have produced a representative sample. In addition, the possibility of recall bias or reporting bias; for example, the self-reporting of personal BMI could represent a source of reporting bias. The study does not show to be certain of the casual direction of the association observed between bariatric surgeries awareness and other variables due to the study’s cross-sectional design.


Conclusion

There are still misconceptions among the public toward bariatric surgeries. Tremendous efforts should be undertaken to improve the patient-doctor discussion, which may lead to better discussions and outcomes. Targeted awareness campaigns should be encouraged and supported.


List of Abbreviations

BMI Body Mass Index

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


Funding

None.


Consent of publication

Informed consent was obtained from all participants.


Ethical approval

It was approved by institutional scientific and ethical committee. Research Ethics Committee in Aljouf University approved the study on 20 March 2019.


Author details

Ahmed Khalid Alghutayghit1, Abdulsalam Muteb Alanazi1, Hany Abdelfatah Elhady2, Saleh Ahmed Alzaid1, Ghalib Mohammed Alsulami1, Anas Mohammed Alomair1, Khalid Sultan Alwasem1, Thamer Abdullah Alanazy1, Omar Ibrahim Madhi Almadhi1, Rayan Riyadh Abdullah Aldandani1

  1. Medical Student, Jouf University, Skaka, Saudi Arabia
  2. Assistance Professor, Surgical Department, Jouf University, Skaka, Saudi Arabia

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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alghutayghit AK, Alanazi AM, Elhady HA, Alzaid SA, Alsulami GM, Alomair AM, Alwasem KS, Alanazy TA, Almadhi OIM, Aldandani RRA. Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568


Web Style

Alghutayghit AK, Alanazi AM, Elhady HA, Alzaid SA, Alsulami GM, Alomair AM, Alwasem KS, Alanazy TA, Almadhi OIM, Aldandani RRA. Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=76641 [Access: October 15, 2021]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alghutayghit AK, Alanazi AM, Elhady HA, Alzaid SA, Alsulami GM, Alomair AM, Alwasem KS, Alanazy TA, Almadhi OIM, Aldandani RRA. Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alghutayghit AK, Alanazi AM, Elhady HA, Alzaid SA, Alsulami GM, Alomair AM, Alwasem KS, Alanazy TA, Almadhi OIM, Aldandani RRA. Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2020), [cited October 15, 2021]; 4(2): 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



Harvard Style

Alghutayghit, A. K., Alanazi, . A. M., Elhady, . H. A., Alzaid, . S. A., Alsulami, . G. M., Alomair, . A. M., Alwasem, . K. S., Alanazy, . T. A., Almadhi, . O. I. M. & Aldandani, . R. R. A. (2020) Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 4 (2), 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



Turabian Style

Alghutayghit, Ahmed Khalid, Abdulsalam Muteb Alanazi, Hany Abdelfatah Elhady, Saleh Ahmed Alzaid, Ghalib Mohammed Alsulami, Anas Mohammed Alomair, Khalid Sultan Alwasem, Thamer Abdullah Alanazy, Omar Ibrahim Madhi Almadhi, and Rayan Riyadh Abdullah Aldandani. 2020. Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



Chicago Style

Alghutayghit, Ahmed Khalid, Abdulsalam Muteb Alanazi, Hany Abdelfatah Elhady, Saleh Ahmed Alzaid, Ghalib Mohammed Alsulami, Anas Mohammed Alomair, Khalid Sultan Alwasem, Thamer Abdullah Alanazy, Omar Ibrahim Madhi Almadhi, and Rayan Riyadh Abdullah Aldandani. "Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alghutayghit, Ahmed Khalid, Abdulsalam Muteb Alanazi, Hany Abdelfatah Elhady, Saleh Ahmed Alzaid, Ghalib Mohammed Alsulami, Anas Mohammed Alomair, Khalid Sultan Alwasem, Thamer Abdullah Alanazy, Omar Ibrahim Madhi Almadhi, and Rayan Riyadh Abdullah Aldandani. "Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.2 (2020), 358-364. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alghutayghit, A. K., Alanazi, . A. M., Elhady, . H. A., Alzaid, . S. A., Alsulami, . G. M., Alomair, . A. M., Alwasem, . K. S., Alanazy, . T. A., Almadhi, . O. I. M. & Aldandani, . R. R. A. (2020) Assessment of public perception and attitude regarding obesity and bariatric surgery in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 358-364. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575488568