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Original Research (Original Article) 


Waad Hameed Altarfawi et al, 2020;4(2):275–279

International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries

Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia

Waad Hameed Altarfawi1*, Nujud Muteb Alshammari1, Hadil Anwar Aljaber1, Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi1, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan1, Maha Thiab Alshbiny1, Zuhur Naif Alazmi1, Alanoud Saud Almatrafi1

Correspondence to: Waad Hameed Altarfaw

*Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia.

Email: wa3d-2 [at] hotmail.com

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article.

Received: 23 December 2018 | Accepted: 09 February 2019


ABSTRACT

Background:

Despite the increasing success of immunization systems in Saudi Arabia, concerns about the safety of vaccination have increased. While all immunizations can cause symptoms in a few people, but most symptoms are gentle and do not last longer than a couple of days. Caregivers should be aware of post-vaccination complication that they can give the right care to the child after vaccination and if complications happened. The aim of the study was to describe currently available epidemiological data on the prevalence of post-vaccination complications in the studied population.


Methodology:

A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on the general population of Arar city during the period from July to October 2018 to evaluate the prevalence of post-vaccination complications in children among the selected population in a representative sample of Arar city.


Results:

The total prevalence of post-vaccination complication in children of Arar city was 54.8%. Reported complications were fever, redness, and hotness at the injection site, common cold symptoms, hypersensitivity reaction, abscess at the injection site, gastroenteritis, subcutaneous skin rash or arthritis with a percentage of 18.8, 9.6, 4.8, 2.4, 2.4, 0.7, 1.4, and 0.6, respectively. More than half of the children (57.5%) were males. The age group of the children was from below 6 months to more than 24 months. The majority of the children (47.1%) were from 0 to 6 months in age.


Conclusion:

The results of the study showed a relatively high prevalence of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar city, Saudi Arabia. Therefore, care should be given to providing caregivers with enough information on how to deal with and give a good level of care to the children.


Keywords:

Vaccination, side effects, immunization, safety.


Introduction

Immunization programs are among the most effective public health interventions ever developed [1]. During the past three decades, Saudi Arabia has achieved tremendous achievement regarding basic vaccination coverage [1]. Structured vaccination programs have been delivered, mainly, through a wide network of primary health care centers to achieve these results. Concerns about the safety of vaccination should be concerned. While all vaccines can cause symptoms in a few people, actually most will, in general, be gentle and do not last longer than a couple of days. It is normal to be worried that you or your kid will react after having an inoculation. The most well-known reactions are at the site where the infusion was given, these incorporate swelling, redness, or a little hard protuberance. These manifestations, for the most part, go inside a few days, and you do not have to take care of them. At times, your kid may build up a fever. In case you are as yet not content with your infant’s response to any inoculation, address your training medical attendant or general practitioner. Saudi Arabia has accomplished, amid the most recent three decades, an enormous accomplishment regarding essential inoculation inclusion [1]. There are more than 2,000 primary health care centers throughout the Kingdom. A ministry official said all children’s vaccines are available in these centers except the one against hepatitis A, which is experiencing a global shortage [1]. Despite the increasing success of immunization systems, concerns about the safety of vaccination have increased. Perceived safety issues that have been in public focus in the past decades have included disorders within the autistic spectrum [2,3] or the neurological events after some vaccinations [4]. This study was done to survey the adverse effects following vaccinations and to compare them with the internationally published figures [5,6]. This comparison may serve as an indicator of the safety of the practice. In Saudi Arabia, the incidence of such reactions related to licensed vaccines has not been determined before. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to describe currently available epidemiological data on the prevalence of post-vaccination complications in the studied population.


Participants and Methods

A cross-sectional, community-based, analytic, and descriptive study was conducted on the general population of Arar city (Northern Border Province, Saudi Arabia) of both sexes, during the period from July to October 2018 to evaluate the prevalence of post-vaccination complications in children among the selected population in a representative sample of Arar city.

Systematic, simple random technique was followed as we choose the participants randomly. The data were collected using a predesigned, online questionnaire covering all the items that are significant to the study, which was given to all the participants to answer it personally. A total of 416 children of both sexes were included in the study.

After data collection, collected data were coded, and analysis was done using the Statistical package for social sciences (version 20). p value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Results

Table 1 gives the socio-demographic characteristics of the studied children. 42.5% of the cases were females, and 57.5% were males. The age group of the children was from below 6 months to more than 24 months. The majority of the children (47.1%) were from 0 to 6 months in age. Father’s education of the children was university or more in 63.5%, secondary in 32.2%, preparatory in 2.4%, and primary in 1.9%. Mother’s education was university or more in 80.5%, secondary in 14.9%, preparatory in 2.9%, and primary in 1.7%. The percentage of working fathers was 92.3%, and working mothers was 51.2%.

Table 2 gives the completeness of the obligatory vaccines and complications of vaccination among the studied children. Of the total number of cases, 62% completed all the obligatory vaccines, and 70% had the doses completely. Vaccination complications were detected in more than half of the total number of children (54.8%). The complications were fever, redness, and hotness at the injection site, common cold symptoms, hypersensitivity reaction, abscess at the injection site, gastroenteritis, subcutaneous skin rash, or arthritis with a percentage of 18.8, 9.6, 4.8, 2.4, 2.4, 0.7, 1.4, and 0.6, respectively. 54.8% of the cases had a treatment for the complications, and 54.8% had their case improved.

Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the studied children, Arar, 2018.

Sex Frequency Percent
Female 177 42.5
Male 239 57.5
Total 416 100.0
Child age group (in months)
<6 196 47.1
6–12 83 20.0
13–24 88 21.2
>24 49 11.8
Child order among siblings
<3 271 65.1
3–5 89 21.4
6–10 52 12.5
>10 4 1.0
Father education
Primary 8 1.9
Secondary 134 32.2
University or more 264 63.5
Preparatory 10 2.4
Mother education
Primary 7 1.7
Secondary 62 14.9
University or more 335 80.5
Preparatory 12 2.9
Father work
Retired 12 2.9
Not working 20 4.8
Working 384 92.3
Mother work
Not working 203 48.8
Working 213 51.2

Table 3 gives the relationship between completeness of obligatory vaccines and child sex and order among siblings, mother work, education, and complications of any vaccines among the studied children. 41.8% of the female children and 58.2% of the male children had not completed the obligatory vaccine. 50.6% of the children with a not working mother had not completed the obligatory vaccines; on the other hand, 49.4% of the children with working mother had not completed their obligatory vaccines. The post-vaccination complication was detected in 46.5% of the children who completed their obligatory vaccines; on the other hand, 53.5% of the children completed their vaccines and had post-vaccination complications.

Table 2. Completeness of the obligatory vaccines and complications of vaccination among the studied children, Arar, 2018.

Completeness of obligatory vaccines Frequency Percent
No 158 38.0
Yes 258 62.0
Total 416 100.0
Are all doses of all vaccines given to the child
No 124 29.8
Yes 292 70.2
Is there complications of any vaccine
No 188 45.2
Yes 228 54.8
Received treatment of complications
No 188 45.2
Yes 228 54.8
Improvement of the case
No 188 45.2
Yes 228 54.8
Type of complication
Fever only 78 18.8
Redness and hotness at the injection site 40 9.6
Common cold symptoms 20 4.8
Hypersensitivity reaction 10 2.4
Abscess at the injection site 10 2.4
Gastroenteritis 3 0.7
Subcutaneous skin rash 6 1.4
Arthritis 3 0.6
No complications 188 45.2
The vaccine that causes complications
Measles, mumps and rubella 46 11.1
Influenza 32 7.7
Hepatitis B 30 7.2
DPT 18 4.3
OPV 14 3.4
Measles 14 3.4
Chickenpox 8 1.9
Pneumococcal vaccine 8 1.9
Meningitis 6 1.4
Hepatitis A 4 1.0
Others 48 11.5
No complications 188 45.2

Discussion

It is normal to be worried that you or your kid will react in the wake of having an immunization. While all vaccines can cause symptoms in a few people, actually most will, in general, be mellow and do not last longer than a couple of days. A few people do not get any symptoms whatsoever. Despite the increasing success of immunization systems, concerns about the safety of vaccination have increased. We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based study of 416 children of both sexes (57.5% males and 42.5% females) who were chosen randomly and lived in Arar city (Northern Border Province, Saudi Arabia). The study takes place between June and October 2018. Educational level of the participant might be thought to affect the accuracy of the given data. However, similar methods of reporting have been used previously by many researchers [710].

Then again, measuring antagonistic occasions dispassionately is troublesome, asset devouring, and does not cover the entire time frame post immunization. In our study, we did not concern a specific period after vaccination to observe if any complications happened or not. Of the total number of cases, 62% completed all the obligatory vaccines, and 70% had the doses completely. Vaccination complications were detected in more than half of the total number of children (54.8%). These complications were fever, redness, and hotness at the injection site, common cold symptoms, hypersensitivity reaction, abscess at the injection site, gastroenteritis, subcutaneous skin rash, or arthritis with a percentage of 18.8, 9.6, 4.8, 2.4, 2.4, 0.7, 1.4, and 0.6, respectively. Fever was a more common reaction than local reactions and other complications. This is unlike Bader Almustafa’s study [11] and other studies as well [5,1214], who found that local reactions were more frequent than fever, other systemic effects, and behavioral effects. The nonappearance of any seizure may be credited to deficient example estimate, be that as it may, comparable outcomes were identified in few examinations, in higher sample size, even [5,15]. Perpetual neurological harm is anyway significantly less in predominance and not inside the extent of this examination. In another investigation, it has been accounted for to happen once in 32,000 to 1.24 million doses [14,16]. We calculated the p value in the relationship between the completeness of obligatory vaccines, child sex, the order among siblings, mother work, and education, complications of any vaccines among the studied children and found them all to be not significant except mother’s education, which was significant with a p value equal to 0.043.

Table 3. The relationship between completeness of obligatory vaccines and child sex and order among siblings, mother work, education, and complications of any vaccines among the studied children, Arar, 2018.

Variables Responses Completeness of obligatory vaccines Total (n = 416) p value
No (n = 158) Yes (n = 258)
Child sex Female 66 111 177 0.442
41.8% 43.0% 42.5%
Male 92 147 239
58.2% 57.0% 57.5%
Child order among siblings 1–2 104 167 271 0.284
65.8% 64.7% 65.1%
3–5 38 51 89
24.1% 19.8% 21.4%
6–10 14 38 52
8.9% 14.7% 12.5%
>10 2 2 4
1.3% .8% 1.0%
Mother work Not working 80 123 203 0.314
50.6% 47.7% 48.8%
Working 78 135 213
49.4% 52.3% 51.2%
Mother education Primary 2 5 7 0.043
1.3% 1.9% 1.7%
Secondary 16 46 62
10.1% 17.8% 14.9%
University or more 138 197 335
87.3% 76.4% 80.5%
Preparatory 2 10 12
1.3% 3.9% 2.9%
Is there complications of any vaccine No 68 120 188 0.287
43.0% 46.5% 45.2%
Yes 90 138 228
57.0% 53.5% 54.8%

Conclusion

Complications of vaccinations in children in Arar city are a common problem. These are common and worth considering by health workers to orient caregivers for their possible occurrence at the time of vaccination.


Limitations of the Study

  1. Little amount of studies that are similar to our study.
  2. The population of the study is limited.
  3. Data were administrated by an only educated person.
  4. Inability to determine a person’s credibility.

Disclosure Statement

The authors have nothing to disclose.


Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


Funding

None


Consent for publication

Informed consent was obtained from the participants.


Ethical approval

The research was done under supervision of Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia.


Author details

Waad Hameed Altarfawi1, Nujud Muteb Alshammari1, Hadil Anwar Aljaber1, Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi1, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan1, Maha Thiab Alshbiny1, Zuhur Naif Alazmi1, Alanoud Saud Almatrafi1

1. Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia


References

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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Altarfawi WH, Alshammari NM, Aljaber HA, Alanazi ASK, Alhamwan KF, Alshbiny MT, Alazmi ZN, Almatrafi AS. Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512


Web Style

Altarfawi WH, Alshammari NM, Aljaber HA, Alanazi ASK, Alhamwan KF, Alshbiny MT, Alazmi ZN, Almatrafi AS. Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. https://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=22928 [Access: January 28, 2022]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Altarfawi WH, Alshammari NM, Aljaber HA, Alanazi ASK, Alhamwan KF, Alshbiny MT, Alazmi ZN, Almatrafi AS. Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Altarfawi WH, Alshammari NM, Aljaber HA, Alanazi ASK, Alhamwan KF, Alshbiny MT, Alazmi ZN, Almatrafi AS. Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2020), [cited January 28, 2022]; 4(2): 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



Harvard Style

Altarfawi, W. H., Alshammari, . N. M., Aljaber, . H. A., Alanazi, . A. S. K., Alhamwan, . K. F., Alshbiny, . M. T., Alazmi, . Z. N. & Almatrafi, . A. S. (2020) Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 4 (2), 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



Turabian Style

Altarfawi, Waad Hameed, Nujud Muteb Alshammari, Hadil Anwar Aljaber, Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan, Maha Thiab Alshbiny, Zuhur Naif Alazmi, and Alanoud Saud Almatrafi. 2020. Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



Chicago Style

Altarfawi, Waad Hameed, Nujud Muteb Alshammari, Hadil Anwar Aljaber, Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan, Maha Thiab Alshbiny, Zuhur Naif Alazmi, and Alanoud Saud Almatrafi. "Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Altarfawi, Waad Hameed, Nujud Muteb Alshammari, Hadil Anwar Aljaber, Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan, Maha Thiab Alshbiny, Zuhur Naif Alazmi, and Alanoud Saud Almatrafi. "Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.2 (2020), 275-279. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Altarfawi, W. H., Alshammari, . N. M., Aljaber, . H. A., Alanazi, . A. S. K., Alhamwan, . K. F., Alshbiny, . M. T., Alazmi, . Z. N. & Almatrafi, . A. S. (2020) Prevalence and risk factors of post-vaccination complications in children of Arar City, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 275-279. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545595512