Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 706-710

Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Roaa Aljohani, Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid, Rahaf Eid Alhazmi, Ala Abdulrahman Sdaqir, Soliman Masoud Amer.

ABSTRACT

Background: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) results from overactivation of small peripheral vessels to cold or mental stress. People usually present with tri- or biphasic color changes accompanied by neurological symptoms such as numbness or tingling. There are two types of RP: primary and secondary. The primary RP is common in the young age group and associated with more benign disease course. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary RPs among medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study carried out among medical students of Taibah University, Saudi Arabia, between November 2017 and April 2018. The questionnaire included responses related to RP symptoms, risk factors, and associated diseases. Results: Of 300 students who responded to the questionnaire, 16 (5.3%) students reported RP based on the UK Scleroderma Study Group definition. The age of the majority of the participants was between 20 and 30 years. RP was observed more frequently in females (p = 0.005). Neurological symptoms were reported in 10 students (62.5%) with definite RP. Increase caffeine consumption, usage of contraceptive pills, and migraine were frequently found risk factors in students with RP (p = 0.05, 0.003, and 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of RP is relatively low as compared to previous studies. Geographical distribution, genetics, or both might be the cause for these results. Female gender, more caffeine consumption, usage of contraceptive pills, and migraine were more frequently found risk factors in students with RP.

Keywords:
Prevalence, Raynaud's phenomena, medical students, Saudi Arabia


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Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia


Authors
Roaa Aljohani
Rheumatologist, Systemic Lupus and Psoriatic Arthritis Consultant, Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid
Medical Interns, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Rahaf Eid Alhazmi
Medical Interns, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Ala Abdulrahman Sdaqir
Medical Interns, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Soliman Masoud Amer
Associate Professor Family and Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
. Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid, Medical Interns, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.; halaez222@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 05 Jan 2020
Published in print 25 Feb 2020

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Pubmed Style

Aljohani R, Abuzaid HI, Alhazmi RE, Sdaqir AA, Amer SM. Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


Web Style

Aljohani R, Abuzaid HI, Alhazmi RE, Sdaqir AA, Amer SM. Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=80709 [Access: March 29, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Aljohani R, Abuzaid HI, Alhazmi RE, Sdaqir AA, Amer SM. Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Aljohani R, Abuzaid HI, Alhazmi RE, Sdaqir AA, Amer SM. Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. IJMDC. (2020), [cited March 29, 2020]; 4(3): 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


Harvard Style

Aljohani, R., Abuzaid, . H. I., Alhazmi, . R. E., Sdaqir, . A. A. & Amer, . S. M. (2020) Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. IJMDC, 4 (3), 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


Turabian Style

Aljohani, Roaa, Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid, Rahaf Eid Alhazmi, Ala Abdulrahman Sdaqir, and Soliman Masoud Amer. 2020. Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (3), 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


Chicago Style

Aljohani, Roaa, Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid, Rahaf Eid Alhazmi, Ala Abdulrahman Sdaqir, and Soliman Masoud Amer. "Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Aljohani, Roaa, Halah Izzeldin Abuzaid, Rahaf Eid Alhazmi, Ala Abdulrahman Sdaqir, and Soliman Masoud Amer. "Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.3 (2020), 706-710. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Aljohani, R., Abuzaid, . H. I., Alhazmi, . R. E., Sdaqir, . A. A. & Amer, . S. M. (2020) Prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomena among healthy medical students in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (3), 706-710. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1578239190


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