IJMDC. 2020; 4(7): 1086-1091

Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review

Authors: Amer Ahmed Balla Ahmed, Aliah Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hajar Ghassab Alruwaili, Lamis Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hind Hamad Alwulayi, Atheer Badr Alenzi, Sulaiman Zayed Sulaiman Alamri, Muteab Hakem Saud Alruwili, Bandar Abdulmohsen Ali Altaleb.

ABSTRACT

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the triad of microangiopathy hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal damage. It is one of the most known causes of acute renal damage in children. The current review aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of HUS, whether primary or secondary to carfilzomib, especially in Saudi Arabia, and to show the drugs that could be used in the treatment of this condition. PubMed and Elton B. Stephens Co Information Services were chosen as the search databases for the publications used within the study. Previous studies were reviewed and discussed approaching prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of typical and atypical HUS among Saudi and non-Saudi studies around the world. The authors identified seven relevant articles. Our review of the published data indicates that HUS is a rare disease with a prevalence rate ranging from 0.7 to 8 cases/100,000 population per year with significant seasonal and geographical and geographical variability. The highest prevalence of Post-diarrheal HUS (D+ HUS) was reported among children younger than 6 years who present in the late summer and autumn months. The mainstay of treatment was supportive of early hydration, blood transfusions if needed, and management of potential complications, including acute kidney injury, malignant hypertension, and neurological sequelae. Efforts to improve outcomes and decrease complications may include the following: (a) earlier referral, (b) better diagnosis with identification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, (c) early dialysis support, (d) plasma exchange, (e) avoiding co-morbidities, and (f) better detection of familial complement deficiencies as clinical trials have shown that eculizumab to be more effective than plasma therapy in a HUS due to complement dysregulations.

Keywords:
Prevalence, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, carfilzomib, Saudi Arabia


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Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review


Authors
Amer Ahmed Balla Ahmed
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Aliah Saad Mohammad Alruwaili
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili
Maternity and Children Hospital, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Hajar Ghassab Alruwaili
Eradah (Al Amal), Mental Health Complex, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Lamis Saad Mohammad Alruwaili
Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Hind Hamad Alwulayi
Maternity and Children Hospital, Arar, Saudi Arabia
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Atheer Badr Alenzi
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Sulaiman Zayed Sulaiman Alamri
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Muteab Hakem Saud Alruwili
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Bandar Abdulmohsen Ali Altaleb
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Al Jouf City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Maternity and Children Hospital, Arar, Saudi Arabia.; nouf-n3@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 23 Dec 2019
Published in print 10 Jul 2020

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Pubmed Style

Ahmed AAB, Alruwaili ASM, Alruwaili NSM, Alruwaili HG, Alruwaili LSM, Alwulayi HH, Alenzi AB, Alamri SZS, Alruwili MHS, Altaleb BAA. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. IJMDC. 2020; 4(7): 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


Web Style

Ahmed AAB, Alruwaili ASM, Alruwaili NSM, Alruwaili HG, Alruwaili LSM, Alwulayi HH, Alenzi AB, Alamri SZS, Alruwili MHS, Altaleb BAA. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=79144 [Access: August 04, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ahmed AAB, Alruwaili ASM, Alruwaili NSM, Alruwaili HG, Alruwaili LSM, Alwulayi HH, Alenzi AB, Alamri SZS, Alruwili MHS, Altaleb BAA. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. IJMDC. 2020; 4(7): 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ahmed AAB, Alruwaili ASM, Alruwaili NSM, Alruwaili HG, Alruwaili LSM, Alwulayi HH, Alenzi AB, Alamri SZS, Alruwili MHS, Altaleb BAA. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. IJMDC. (2020), [cited August 04, 2020]; 4(7): 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


Harvard Style

Ahmed, A. A. B., Alruwaili, . A. S. M., Alruwaili, . N. S. M., Alruwaili, . H. G., Alruwaili, . L. S. M., Alwulayi, . H. H., Alenzi, . A. B., Alamri, . S. Z. S., Alruwili, . M. H. S. & Altaleb, . B. A. A. (2020) Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. IJMDC, 4 (7), 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


Turabian Style

Ahmed, Amer Ahmed Balla, Aliah Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hajar Ghassab Alruwaili, Lamis Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hind Hamad Alwulayi, Atheer Badr Alenzi, Sulaiman Zayed Sulaiman Alamri, Muteab Hakem Saud Alruwili, and Bandar Abdulmohsen Ali Altaleb. 2020. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (7), 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


Chicago Style

Ahmed, Amer Ahmed Balla, Aliah Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hajar Ghassab Alruwaili, Lamis Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hind Hamad Alwulayi, Atheer Badr Alenzi, Sulaiman Zayed Sulaiman Alamri, Muteab Hakem Saud Alruwili, and Bandar Abdulmohsen Ali Altaleb. "Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ahmed, Amer Ahmed Balla, Aliah Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Noof Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hajar Ghassab Alruwaili, Lamis Saad Mohammad Alruwaili, Hind Hamad Alwulayi, Atheer Badr Alenzi, Sulaiman Zayed Sulaiman Alamri, Muteab Hakem Saud Alruwili, and Bandar Abdulmohsen Ali Altaleb. "Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.7 (2020), 1086-1091. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ahmed, A. A. B., Alruwaili, . A. S. M., Alruwaili, . N. S. M., Alruwaili, . H. G., Alruwaili, . L. S. M., Alwulayi, . H. H., Alenzi, . A. B., Alamri, . S. Z. S., Alruwili, . M. H. S. & Altaleb, . B. A. A. (2020) Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a brief review. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (7), 1086-1091. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577131982


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