Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 441-447

Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article

Authors: Mostafa Elsayed Ahmed Mostafa Ahmed, Eissa Zaedan M. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Sulaiman S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Matar R. Alanazi, Wael Sughayyir G. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Mofareh M. Alanazi, Faisal Eid N. Alanazi.

ABSTRACT

It is widely recognized that osteoporosis represents a major public health problem due to its association with liability to fragile fractures. The study aims to investigate prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis and/or osteopenia in women aged 40 years and above in Saudi Arabia. PubMed and EBSCO Information Services were chosen as the search databases for the publications used within the study. Restriction to the last 10 years and the English language due to unavailable resources for translation were used. Among healthy Saudi women, 40-80 years of age, 29.4%-36.6% were diagnosed as having osteoporosis, whereas 24.8%-40% were diagnosed with osteopenia. Risk factors for osteopenia and osteoporosis might be due to lack of literacy or primary education, prolonged history of fractures, no drinking of laban, as well as a prolonged period of fertility, lacking parity, menopausal period, gynecological age, and the presence of comorbidity, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The study concludes that up to 36.6% of females were diagnosed as having osteoporosis, whereas up to 40% of females were diagnosed with osteopenia. Increasing age, oral hypoglycemic agents, higher soft drinks consumption, reduced exercise, limited intake of milk and dairy products, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, no literacy or primary education, history of fractures, not drinking laban, prolonged fertility period, lacking parity, menopausal duration, gynecological age, and the presence of comorbidity were determined to be some of the risk factors for osteopenia and osteoporosis.

Keywords:
Osteoporosis, women, epidemiology of osteoporosis osteopenia, risk factors, Saudi Arabia


View PDF
Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article


Authors
Mostafa Elsayed Ahmed Mostafa Ahmed
Consultant of Orthopedic Surgery, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Eissa Zaedan M Alenezi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulrahman Sulaiman S Alanazi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulaziz Matar R Alanazi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Wael Sughayyir G Alanazi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulaziz Mofareh M Alanazi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Faisal Eid N Alanazi
General Practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Eissa Zaedan M. Alenezi, General practitioner, North Medical Tower, Arar, Saudi Arabia.; roh-11@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 22 Dec 2019
Accepted 04 Jan 2020
Published online 17 Jan 2020

How to cite this article?

Export to EndNote Export to refMan

Pubmed Style

Ahmed MEAM, Alenezi EZM, Alanazi ASS, Alanazi AMR, Alanazi WSG, Alanazi AMM, Alanazi FEN. Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Web Style

Ahmed MEAM, Alenezi EZM, Alanazi ASS, Alanazi AMR, Alanazi WSG, Alanazi AMM, Alanazi FEN. Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=79008 [Access: February 18, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ahmed MEAM, Alenezi EZM, Alanazi ASS, Alanazi AMR, Alanazi WSG, Alanazi AMM, Alanazi FEN. Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. IJMDC. 2020; 4(2): 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ahmed MEAM, Alenezi EZM, Alanazi ASS, Alanazi AMR, Alanazi WSG, Alanazi AMM, Alanazi FEN. Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. IJMDC. (2020), [cited February 18, 2020]; 4(2): 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Harvard Style

Ahmed, M. E. A. M., Alenezi, . E. Z. M., Alanazi, . A. S. S., Alanazi, . A. M. R., Alanazi, . W. S. G., Alanazi, . A. M. M. & Alanazi, . F. E. N. (2020) Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. IJMDC, 4 (2), 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Turabian Style

Ahmed, Mostafa Elsayed Ahmed Mostafa, Eissa Zaedan M. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Sulaiman S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Matar R. Alanazi, Wael Sughayyir G. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Mofareh M. Alanazi, and Faisal Eid N. Alanazi. 2020. Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Chicago Style

Ahmed, Mostafa Elsayed Ahmed Mostafa, Eissa Zaedan M. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Sulaiman S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Matar R. Alanazi, Wael Sughayyir G. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Mofareh M. Alanazi, and Faisal Eid N. Alanazi. "Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ahmed, Mostafa Elsayed Ahmed Mostafa, Eissa Zaedan M. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Sulaiman S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Matar R. Alanazi, Wael Sughayyir G. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Mofareh M. Alanazi, and Faisal Eid N. Alanazi. "Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.2 (2020), 441-447. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ahmed, M. E. A. M., Alenezi, . E. Z. M., Alanazi, . A. S. S., Alanazi, . A. M. R., Alanazi, . W. S. G., Alanazi, . A. M. M. & Alanazi, . F. E. N. (2020) Osteoporosis in women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a review article. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (2), 441-447. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1577051457


Share this article

Click the icon of the social media platform on which you would like to share this article.

Article Statistics

Viewed: 477
Downloaded: 38

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any part or all of this article please contact the copyright holder, contact@ejmcr.com.

Copyright © 2018 Discover Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved.