Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 645-651

Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers

Authors: Mohammed Nasser Alghunaim, Abdulaziz Mamoon Abdullah, Saleh Alshaibi, Omar Alfehaid, Mohammed Albagami, Aamir Omair, Irfan Anjum.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stuttering is defined as a difficulty in speaking fluently. It starts in childhood and it can be a lifelong problem. Stuttering can impact the person negatively, affecting their social, educational, and occupational experiences. Psychological issues such as anxiety can be common with the stuttering individuals displaying higher anxiety levels than the non-stuttering individuals. This study aims to assess the level of worry in stutterers compared to non-stutterers. It was hypothesized that stutterers show significantly more anxiety and worry as compared to non-stutterers. Methodology: This was a case-control study conducted among stutterers (cases) and non-stutterers (controls) sampled from two hospitals and two stuttering social support groups in Saudi Arabia. The anxiety and worry were measured using the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). The Subjective Stuttering Scale (SSS) was used to measure the severity of stuttering in the cases. Results: The study included 90 stutterers and 140 controls. The stuttering group had significantly higher scores on both the GAD-7 and PSWQ (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found in the stutterers for the severity of stuttering and the GAD-7/PSWQ scores (r > 0.40). Conclusion: Stutterers were found to have a higher degree of anxiety and worry as compared to non-stutterers. Also, this level of anxiety and worry was associated with the severity of stuttering. This indicates the importance to increase the level of awareness about the emotional impacts that are associated with stuttering, such as worry and anxiety. Early screening and treatment should be offered to stutterers to reduce emotional distress.

Keywords:
Anxiety, GAD-7, Stutter, Speech difficulty, PSWQ, SSS


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Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers


Authors
Mohammed Nasser Alghunaim
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulaziz Mamoon Abdullah
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Saleh Alshaibi
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Omar Alfehaid
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Mohammed Albagami
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Aamir Omair
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Irfan Anjum
Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
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Correspondence to:
. College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; hmmode@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 18 Dec 2019
Published online 25 Jan 2020
Published in print 25 Feb 2020

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Pubmed Style

Alghunaim MN, Abdullah AM, Alshaibi S, Alfehaid O, Albagami M, Omair A, Anjum I. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


Web Style

Alghunaim MN, Abdullah AM, Alshaibi S, Alfehaid O, Albagami M, Omair A, Anjum I. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=76268 [Access: March 29, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alghunaim MN, Abdullah AM, Alshaibi S, Alfehaid O, Albagami M, Omair A, Anjum I. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. IJMDC. 2020; 4(3): 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alghunaim MN, Abdullah AM, Alshaibi S, Alfehaid O, Albagami M, Omair A, Anjum I. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. IJMDC. (2020), [cited March 29, 2020]; 4(3): 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


Harvard Style

Alghunaim, M. N., Abdullah, . A. M., Alshaibi, . S., Alfehaid, . O., Albagami, . M., Omair, . A. & Anjum, . I. (2020) Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. IJMDC, 4 (3), 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


Turabian Style

Alghunaim, Mohammed Nasser, Abdulaziz Mamoon Abdullah, Saleh Alshaibi, Omar Alfehaid, Mohammed Albagami, Aamir Omair, and Irfan Anjum. 2020. Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (3), 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


Chicago Style

Alghunaim, Mohammed Nasser, Abdulaziz Mamoon Abdullah, Saleh Alshaibi, Omar Alfehaid, Mohammed Albagami, Aamir Omair, and Irfan Anjum. "Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alghunaim, Mohammed Nasser, Abdulaziz Mamoon Abdullah, Saleh Alshaibi, Omar Alfehaid, Mohammed Albagami, Aamir Omair, and Irfan Anjum. "Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.3 (2020), 645-651. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alghunaim, M. N., Abdullah, . A. M., Alshaibi, . S., Alfehaid, . O., Albagami, . M., Omair, . A. & Anjum, . I. (2020) Do males who stutter also experience excessive worry: a case-control study conducted in Saudi Arabia comparing worry among Saudi male stutterers with non-stutterers. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (3), 645-651. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1575308714


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