Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 137-142

Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease

Authors: Omar Obaid Alharbi, Ghada Mohammed Beyari, Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber, Abdullah F. Alotaibi, Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan, Yasmina Nezar Mohamed.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dry eye disease (DED) or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. This systematic review article discusses the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and current medications of DED. Methodology: A systematic review search, utilizing MEDLINE and PubMed, was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye, published from 2009 to 2019. The word "dry eye" and "women" were searched in combination with one or more of the following words: prevalence, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, and quality of life. A manual search was also performed based on citations in the published literature. Results: Prevalence of DED in studies varies in the Middle East; from 8.7% in Iran to 32.1% in Saudi Arabia. 35% of the Saudi population, aged 40 years and older in Riyadh, had DED. Age, sex (female gender), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, topical medication, and autoimmune disorders are known risk factors for DED. Conclusion: It is fundamental to diagnose patients with DED accurately, recognizing the major cause behind their dry eyes. Careful and accurate consideration of patient-reported symptoms should be incorporated into a DED treatment.

Keywords:
Dry eye disease, women, etiology, prevalence, risk factors


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Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease


Authors
Omar Obaid Alharbi
General Practitioner, Ohoud Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ghada Mohammed Beyari
Intern, Umm AlQura University, Makkah. Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber
Intern, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdullah F Alotaibi
MOH Doctor, R1-Resident Ophthalmology, AlBahar Center, Kuwait City, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan
Intern, Salmaniya Medical Complex, I, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Yasmina Nezar Mohamed
Intern, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Omar Obaid Alharbi, General Practitioner, Ohoud Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia; omar.ohbck@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 13 Nov 2019
Accepted 29 Nov 2019
Published online 25 Dec 2019
Published in print 13 Jan 2020

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Pubmed Style

Alharbi OO, Beyari GM, Saber WA, Alotaibi AF, Bukannan AY, Mohamed YN. Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


Web Style

Alharbi OO, Beyari GM, Saber WA, Alotaibi AF, Bukannan AY, Mohamed YN. Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=73603 [Access: August 06, 2020]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alharbi OO, Beyari GM, Saber WA, Alotaibi AF, Bukannan AY, Mohamed YN. Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alharbi OO, Beyari GM, Saber WA, Alotaibi AF, Bukannan AY, Mohamed YN. Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. IJMDC. (2020), [cited August 06, 2020]; 4(1): 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


Harvard Style

Alharbi, O. O., Beyari, . G. M., Saber, . W. A., Alotaibi, . A. F., Bukannan, . A. Y. & Mohamed, . Y. N. (2020) Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. IJMDC, 4 (1), 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


Turabian Style

Alharbi, Omar Obaid, Ghada Mohammed Beyari, Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber, Abdullah F. Alotaibi, Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan, and Yasmina Nezar Mohamed. 2020. Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (1), 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


Chicago Style

Alharbi, Omar Obaid, Ghada Mohammed Beyari, Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber, Abdullah F. Alotaibi, Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan, and Yasmina Nezar Mohamed. "Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4 (2020), 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alharbi, Omar Obaid, Ghada Mohammed Beyari, Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber, Abdullah F. Alotaibi, Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan, and Yasmina Nezar Mohamed. "Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 4.1 (2020), 137-142. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alharbi, O. O., Beyari, . G. M., Saber, . W. A., Alotaibi, . A. F., Bukannan, . A. Y. & Mohamed, . Y. N. (2020) Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 4 (1), 137-142. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1573612517


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