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Original Research (Original Article) 


Tareq Al-Yahya et al, 2019;3(10):083–085.

International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries

The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem

Tareq Al-Yahya1, Yasir Al-Shehri1, Hiba Al-Burshaid1, Faisal Al-Jabr1

Correspondence to: Tareq Al-Yahya

*King Faisal University, Hafouf, Saudi Arabia.

Email: dr.tariq.alyahya [at] gmail.com

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article.

Received: 06 August 2019 | Accepted: 13 August 2019


ABSTRACT

Background:

It has been noticed in the last few years that women have been spending a larger amount of money on different methods, such as cosmetic surgery, to enhance their physical appearance. The present study aims to assess the influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem.


Methodology:

An online survey was designed, uploaded, and shared through social media. The survey was targeted to assess the job satisfaction relevant to different occupations among the study subjects.


Results:

The study sample contained 43 participants. All of the 43 subjects were females with a mean age of 31.6 years. Two patients underwent Brazilian butt lifts (4.7%). Nine participants underwent rhinoplasty (20.9%). Breast reduction was done to one person (2.3%). Five participants had breast augmentations done (11.6%). One had a thigh lift (2.3%). Two participants had blepharoplasties (4.7%). Two participants underwent torsoplasties (4.7%). Two participants had abdominoplasties (4.7%). Submental liposuction was done to five patients (11.6). Botox and filler injections were given to 14 participants (32.6%). Participants were also given the job satisfaction scale, developed by McDonald and MacIntyre. Overall, participants believed that their cosmetic procedure did have a positive impact on their work-life and satisfaction with work (p = 0.02). The highest rate of people who agreed with being satisfied in their job was seen in the rhinoplasty sample (66%), whereas none of the participants who underwent Brachioplasty agreed with the statement.


Conclusion:

The present study found that elective cosmetic surgery leads to an increase in job satisfaction, we found no statistically significant difference between the various cosmetic procedures and their different impacts on job satisfaction. This may be due to the relatively small sample size. Therefore, the different types of cosmetic procedures and their different magnitudes of impact cannot be concluded in this study. More studies may need to be done.


Keywords:

Influence, elective cosmetic surgery, job satisfaction, self-esteem.


Introduction

Cosmetic surgery is involved with the restoration or improvement of one’s physical appearance through surgical and medical techniques [1]. It has been noticed in the last few years that women have been spending a larger amount of money on different methods, such as cosmetic surgery, to enhance their physical appearance [2]. In some countries like Iran, cosmetic surgery is the most prevalent among all other surgeries [3]. This growing trend toward cosmetic surgeries may be a reflection of the public’s views and approval of aesthetic surgeries as being one of the ways to self-improvement [4]. This rapid growth may be attributed to the societal ideas and attitude toward physical attractiveness [1]. Many factors prompt the decision of people to seek cosmetic surgeries, including personal choices, the impact of social media, and the ability to reach the plastic surgeons easily [5]. Different reports have indicated the presence of a positive relationship between people who undergo cosmetic surgery and higher self-esteem. In this study, 100 participants from 8 surgical practices were evaluated before operation and after operation in terms of body image, depressive symptoms and self-esteem and the following outcome were reported: all of the studied parameters from body image to depressive symptoms to self-esteem have reported as they are improving at intervals 3, 6, 12, 24 months post-operation [6]. However, the type of cosmetic surgery influenced the self-esteem and quality of life. A study conducted for 40 female adult patients to undergo an elective minimal invasive cosmetic surgery and the following was noticed: There was a significant improvement in the self-esteem and quality of life 3 months post-operation and remains high even after 6 months [7]. Other invasive procedures such as breast reduction; self-esteem was noticed to be improving as well [8]. Moreover, self-esteem refers to the extent to which people value themselves, and hence determines the level of self-satisfaction [9]. Previous studies established a positive correlation between self esteem and job satisfaction, which is defined as the degree to which people like their jobs [10]. Thus, in this study, the study team aimed to assess the influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem.


Subjects and Methods

An online survey was uploaded and shared through social media collecting the following data elements: demographic data, type of the procedure done, brief questions about the nature of the job, pre-op questions, post-op questions, and job satisfaction scale developed by McDonald and MacIntyre [11]. They were designed to assess job satisfaction relevant to different occupations. A total number of 68 participants contributed to the study.

Twenty-five participants not meeting the inclusion criteria (females, participants who underwent elective cosmetic surgeries, jobs that require direct communications with people) were excluded. Only 43 participants were included in the study and were surveyed about their experience with cosmetic surgery and multiple aspects of their career-life. The responses from December 2018 to February 2019 were retrospectively analyzed using chisquare test. The surveys contained questions from the job satisfaction scale, and data were collected from the surveys and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).


Results

The study sample contained 43 participants. All 43 were females with a mean age of 31.6 years. Two patients underwent Brazilian butt lifts (4.7%). Nine participants underwent rhinoplasty (20.9%). Breast reduction was made to one person (2.3%). Five participants had breast augmentations done (11.6%). One had a thigh lift (2.3%). Two participants had blepharoplasties (4.7%). Two participants underwent torsoplasties (4.7%). Two participants had abdominoplasties (4.7%). Submental liposuction was done to five patients (11.6). Botox and filler injections were given to 14 participants (32.6%).

Regarding interactions at work, 21 participants stated that they interacted solely with females at work (48.8%). Three stated that they interacted with males (7%). Nineteen participants worked in jobs, which required interactions with both sexes equally (44.2%), as shown in Table 1.

Participants were also given the job satisfaction scale [11], developed by McDonald and MacIntyre to complete, and the answers contained the following points: regarding getting along with supervisors, 60% of participants with submental liposuction agreed they did, while 0% of the abdominoplasty sample believed they did. The highest rate of people who agreed with being satisfied in their jobs was seen in the rhinoplasty sample (66%), whereas none of the participants who underwent Brachioplasty agreed with the statement. Overall, participants believed that their cosmetic procedure did have a positive impact on their work-life and satisfaction with work (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the different types of elective cosmetic surgery on overall job satisfaction (p = 0.09).


Discussion

Job satisfaction is defined as the degree to which people like their jobs [10]. It has also been defined as the attitude that a person holds toward his or her job [12]. Factors that may influence an employee’s job satisfaction include elements of the job itself, the work environment, and elements within the person [12]. The present study was aimed to study the latter. Specifically, the effect of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction. Self-esteem refers to the extent to which people value themselves, and hence determines the level of self-satisfaction [6]. It has also been defined as a person’s subjective evaluation of their worth as a person [13]. In general, females tend to report lower levels of self-esteem than males [13]. One of the main motivators for patients to undergo elective cosmetic surgery is to increase their self-esteem and body satisfaction [14]. There have been previous studies showing a positive relationship between cosmetic surgery and an increase in self-esteem [6]. There has also been a proven correlation between increased selfesteem and increased job satisfaction [11]. Kalus et al. [15] published a study in 2017, concluding that facial cosmetic surgeries led to an increase in job satisfaction and decrease in burnout [14]. They found that the longer the duration since surgery, the higher the job satisfaction achieved. The goal of the present study was to investigate a similar relationship.

Table 1. Different components of the questionnaire and the responses received.

Question Yes % No %
I feel like my job pressures me to look a certain way 10 23.3 33 76.7
I often find myself comparing my appearance with my colleagues 15 34.9 28 65.1
I often feel like I’m being judged at work due to my appearance 15 34.9 28 65.1
I feel that I lack the confidence to deal with people at work 6 14 37 86
I feel like I wasn’t progressing in my job due to my appearance 6 14 37 86
I often feel like I lack the energy and motivation to perform my tasks 13 30 29 67.4
I often feel like I’m preoccupied with my appearance 33 76.7 10 23.3

Conclusion

Although the present study found that elective cosmetic surgery leads to an increase in job satisfaction, the study team found no statistically significant difference between the various cosmetic procedures and their different impacts on job satisfaction. This may be due to the relatively small sample size. Therefore, the different types of cosmetic procedures and their different magnitudes of impact cannot be concluded in this study. More studies may need to be done.


List of Abbreviations

SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


Funding

None.


Consent for publication

Informed consent was obtained from all the participants.


Ethical approval

The research was done under the supervision of King Faisal University, Hafouf, Saudi Arabia.


Author details

Tareq Al-Yahya1, Yasir Al-Shehri1, Hiba Al-Burshaid1, Faisal Al-Jabr1

  1. King Faisal University, Hafouf, Saudi Arabia

References

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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Al-Yahya T, Al-Shehri Y, Al-Burshaid H, Al-Jabr F. The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. IJMDC. 2019; 3(10): 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123


Web Style

Al-Yahya T, Al-Shehri Y, Al-Burshaid H, Al-Jabr F. The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=60348 [Access: October 18, 2019]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Al-Yahya T, Al-Shehri Y, Al-Burshaid H, Al-Jabr F. The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. IJMDC. 2019; 3(10): 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Al-Yahya T, Al-Shehri Y, Al-Burshaid H, Al-Jabr F. The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. IJMDC. (2019), [cited October 18, 2019]; 3(10): 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



Harvard Style

Al-Yahya, T., Al-Shehri, . Y., Al-Burshaid, . H. & Al-Jabr, . F. (2019) The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. IJMDC, 3 (10), 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



Turabian Style

Al-Yahya, Tareq, Yasir Al-Shehri, Hiba Al-Burshaid, and Faisal Al-Jabr. 2019. The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (10), 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



Chicago Style

Al-Yahya, Tareq, Yasir Al-Shehri, Hiba Al-Burshaid, and Faisal Al-Jabr. "The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Al-Yahya, Tareq, Yasir Al-Shehri, Hiba Al-Burshaid, and Faisal Al-Jabr. "The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.10 (2019), 83-85. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Al-Yahya, T., Al-Shehri, . Y., Al-Burshaid, . H. & Al-Jabr, . F. (2019) The influence of the type of elective cosmetic surgery on job satisfaction and self-esteem. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (10), 83-85. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1565084123