Original Article

IJMDC. 2019; 3(10): 29-33

Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Authors: Mohammad Alkot, Ahmed Saad Badri, Yahya Abdullah Alayyafi, Fahad Rashed Alsulami.

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of comorbid depression was found to be two to three times higher among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to non-diabetics; thus the present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among patients with DM in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of 169 diabetic patients through an online link. The Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory tool was used to evaluate the presence of depression. The sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also assessed, and presented in frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify potential risk factors, using adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results: The prevalence of overall depression among patients with diabetes was 21.3%. The majority had no or minimal level of depression (N = 102, 60.4%), while 26 participants had mild depression (15.4%) and 27 had moderate depression. Fourteen participants had severe depression (8.3%). Depression was significantly more prevalent among males (p = 0.001) and obese participants (p = 0.03). Obesity (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI (1.1, 5.2) was the only significant independent risk factor for depression among patients with DM. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent among patients with DM and it most commonly coexists with obesity. Also, depression is more common among males and obese diabetic patients.

Keywords:
Depression, diabetes mellitus, beck depression inventory, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


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Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study


Authors
Mohammad Alkot
Professor of family medicine, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ahmed Saad Badri
Medical intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Yahya Abdullah Alayyafi
Medical intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Fahad Rashed Alsulami
Medical intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Ahmed Saad Badri, Medical intern, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; ahsaba100@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 12 Jun 2019
Accepted 21 Jul 2019
Published online 06 Aug 2019
Published in print 26 Sep 2019

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Pubmed Style

Alkot M, Badri AS, Alayyafi YA, Alsulami FR. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. 2019; 3(10): 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


Web Style

Alkot M, Badri AS, Alayyafi YA, Alsulami FR. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=52481 [Access: October 18, 2019]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alkot M, Badri AS, Alayyafi YA, Alsulami FR. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. 2019; 3(10): 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alkot M, Badri AS, Alayyafi YA, Alsulami FR. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC. (2019), [cited October 18, 2019]; 3(10): 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


Harvard Style

Alkot, M., Badri, . A. S., Alayyafi, . Y. A. & Alsulami, . F. R. (2019) Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. IJMDC, 3 (10), 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


Turabian Style

Alkot, Mohammad, Ahmed Saad Badri, Yahya Abdullah Alayyafi, and Fahad Rashed Alsulami. 2019. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (10), 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


Chicago Style

Alkot, Mohammad, Ahmed Saad Badri, Yahya Abdullah Alayyafi, and Fahad Rashed Alsulami. "Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alkot, Mohammad, Ahmed Saad Badri, Yahya Abdullah Alayyafi, and Fahad Rashed Alsulami. "Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.10 (2019), 29-33. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alkot, M., Badri, . A. S., Alayyafi, . Y. A. & Alsulami, . F. R. (2019) Prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (10), 29-33. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1560342498


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