Original Article

IJMDC. 2019; 3(9): 45-50

Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population

Authors: Sanaa Moharram Kamal, Ali Abdulaziz Alanzan, Abdulelah Saud Bin Hotan, Ahmed Mohammed Aldawsari, Abdullah Khalid Abdullah Alburayk, Sayil Turki M Alotaibi, Mohannad Abdullah A Alokifi, Abdullah Ali Bin Saqer, Abdullah Khalaf Alanazi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects, supporting in building strong bones, teeth, and muscles. The current study aimed at investigating the potential association between vitamin D deficiency and anxiety among the Saudi population. Methodology A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Saudi men and women aged between 18 years to 40 years during the period between March 2017 to August 2017. Online questionnaires were employed for the study enquiring about the manifestations of anxiety and vitamin D deficiency. Since collected data showed normal distribution, differences between groups were evaluated using the Student T-test or one-way ANOVA. Analysis of data was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), MedCalc and GraphPad Prism programs. Results: Among the total responders, 749 (46.5%) respondents had vitamin D deficiency, 161 (10%) had normal vitamin D levels while, 649 (40.3%) were not tested for vitamin D. The levels of vitamin D were 5-15 pg/ml in 431 (57.54%), 16-25 pg/ml in 247 (32.9%), 26-35 pg/ml in 89 (11.88%) and only 31 (4.13%) had vitamin D levels above 60 pg/ml. Data analysis showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among respondents. A positive correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency and anxiety among the studied population Conclusion: The strong association between vitamin D deficiency and anxiety found among Saudi ethnicity recommends measurement of vitamin D levels in subjects demonstrating anxiety manifestations. The authors also recommend the need for administration of vitamin D supplements for vitamin D deficient individuals along with other anxiety management strategies.

Keywords:
Vitamin D, deficiency, anxiety, Saudi population


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Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population


Authors
Sanaa Moharram Kamal
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ali Abdulaziz Alanzan
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdulelah Saud Bin Hotan
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Ahmed Mohammed Aldawsari
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdullah Khalid Abdullah Alburayk
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Sayil Turki M Alotaibi
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Mohannad Abdullah A Alokifi
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdullah Ali Bin Saqer
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Abdullah Khalaf Alanazi
Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al- Kharj, Saudi Arabia; dr.alialanzan@gmail.com

Publication history
Received 17 Apr 2019
Accepted 21 Apr 2019
Published online 26 Jun 2019
Published in print 15 Aug 2019

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Pubmed Style

Kamal SM, Alanzan AA, Hotan ASB, Aldawsari AM, Alburayk AKA, Alotaibi STM, Alokifi MAA, Saqer AAB, Alanazi AK. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. IJMDC. 2019; 3(9): 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


Web Style

Kamal SM, Alanzan AA, Hotan ASB, Aldawsari AM, Alburayk AKA, Alotaibi STM, Alokifi MAA, Saqer AAB, Alanazi AK. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=44115 [Access: September 23, 2019]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kamal SM, Alanzan AA, Hotan ASB, Aldawsari AM, Alburayk AKA, Alotaibi STM, Alokifi MAA, Saqer AAB, Alanazi AK. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. IJMDC. 2019; 3(9): 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kamal SM, Alanzan AA, Hotan ASB, Aldawsari AM, Alburayk AKA, Alotaibi STM, Alokifi MAA, Saqer AAB, Alanazi AK. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. IJMDC. (2019), [cited September 23, 2019]; 3(9): 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


Harvard Style

Kamal, S. M., Alanzan, . A. A., Hotan, . A. S. B., Aldawsari, . A. M., Alburayk, . A. K. A., Alotaibi, . S. T. M., Alokifi, . M. A. A., Saqer, . A. A. B. & Alanazi, . A. K. (2019) Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. IJMDC, 3 (9), 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


Turabian Style

Kamal, Sanaa Moharram, Ali Abdulaziz Alanzan, Abdulelah Saud Bin Hotan, Ahmed Mohammed Aldawsari, Abdullah Khalid Abdullah Alburayk, Sayil Turki M Alotaibi, Mohannad Abdullah A Alokifi, Abdullah Ali Bin Saqer, and Abdullah Khalaf Alanazi. 2019. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (9), 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


Chicago Style

Kamal, Sanaa Moharram, Ali Abdulaziz Alanzan, Abdulelah Saud Bin Hotan, Ahmed Mohammed Aldawsari, Abdullah Khalid Abdullah Alburayk, Sayil Turki M Alotaibi, Mohannad Abdullah A Alokifi, Abdullah Ali Bin Saqer, and Abdullah Khalaf Alanazi. "Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kamal, Sanaa Moharram, Ali Abdulaziz Alanzan, Abdulelah Saud Bin Hotan, Ahmed Mohammed Aldawsari, Abdullah Khalid Abdullah Alburayk, Sayil Turki M Alotaibi, Mohannad Abdullah A Alokifi, Abdullah Ali Bin Saqer, and Abdullah Khalaf Alanazi. "Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.9 (2019), 45-50. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kamal, S. M., Alanzan, . A. A., Hotan, . A. S. B., Aldawsari, . A. M., Alburayk, . A. K. A., Alotaibi, . S. T. M., Alokifi, . M. A. A., Saqer, . A. A. B. & Alanazi, . A. K. (2019) Impact of vitamin D deficiency on anxiety in the Saudi population. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (9), 45-50. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1555515012


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