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Original Research (Original Article) 


Abdulrahman Mohammad Alshumrani et al, 2019;3(8):659–662.

International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries

Knowledge, attitude, and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017

Abdulrahman Mohammad Alshumrani1*, Bassam Adel Aljabri1, Khalid Omar Ali Alahmadi1, Ali Moslih Almalki1, Motaz Mohammed Saeed Sulaimani1, Hussein Ageil Alkhairi2, Hassan M. Masmali2

Correspondence to: Abdulrahman Mohammad Alshumrani

*College of Medicine, Umm Alqura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Email: a.m.m.1001 [at] hotmail.com

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article.

Received: 17 December 2018 | Accepted: 22 January 2019


ABSTRACT

Background:

Hajj is one of the five Islamic pillars, during Hajj period a lot of people need health care services that can be simply performed by individuals themselves if they have prior knowledge about first aid procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of Algerian Hajj pilgrim.


Methodology:

This is a cross-sectional quantitative observational study that was performed on Algerian Hajj pilgrims in 2017 after taking the concerned permission. The study was performed using a modified questionnaire used by the Hong Kong Red Cross by which they assessed knowledge and attitude toward the first aid in the Hong Kong population.


Results:

The mean score of knowledge toward first aid was 6.79 ± 1.91 and the mean score of attitude was 20.98 ± 3.61. Knowledge was significantly associated with age (p-value < 0.001) and education level (p-value < 0.001), whereas attitude was significantly associated only with education level (p-value < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.2, p = 0.001).


Conclusion:

The study found good knowledge and positive attitude toward first aid among the Algerian Hajj pilgrim during Hajj in 2017.


Keywords:

First aid, knowledge, attitude, pilgrims.


Introduction

Hajj is one of the five Islamic pillars and pilgrims come from all around the world to perform it yearly in a specific time in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. In the year 2017, there were 1,862,909 pilgrims from different races and ethnicities gathered on Hajj pilgrimage [1].

Managing such crowds every year is challenging, sometimes disasters take places suddenly and the professional health care provider fails to reach the place quickly because of the overcrowding. First aid is necessary to save lives; it is the initial assistance given to a victim of injury or illness to prevent deterioration of the situation and contributes to a treatment process before professional medical care is available. This refers to assessments and interventions that can be performed by a bystander or by the victim with minimal or no medical equipment [2]. The immediate help of bystanders can reduce damage to health and significantly cut down the time before professional medical assistance help arrives [3]. In the Hajj period, a lot of people need health care service even when they complain of simple wounds that can be treated by their self if they have a good knowledge of first aid. We strongly believe that education regarding first aid procedures should be universal; everyone could learn first aid and everyone could perform it wherever necessary. The scope of first aid is not purely scientific. The definition of scope is therefore variable and should be defined according to circumstances, need, and regulatory requirements [4]. The pilgrims could learn basic first aid skills, including managing bleeding, burning, fractures, and doing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It is reported that approximately 600,000 individuals suffer from cardiac arrest and receive CPR in the United States and Europe each year [5]. The importance of doing early CPR by the first person witnessing the arrest has been well-documented. Bystander CPR can maintain the heart in Image result for the heart in ventricular fibrillation for approximately 10–12 minutes longer. Basic CPR can sustain life until the arrival of trained personnel with equipment and is, therefore, a bridge to defibrillation that could be created by first aid [6]. Also, some of the pilgrims can learn about using automated external defibrillators (AEDs), which are computerized devices that are reliable and simple to operate, enabling trained lay rescuers to perform defibrillation as a key element in resuscitation effort. Initial uncontrolled reports showed that police officers used the AED skillfully and successfully. Two recent studies of dispatched police suggested improved survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest [7]. Also, burns are very common injuries and another example of first aid skills which pilgrims could learn. Recent studies and national societies of burn injuries provide guidelines on how to react immediately after burn injury. And the most important first aid is to stop the burning process and then rapid and appropriate first aid for burns improve microcirculation in burn wound, reducing the extent and depth of the injury [8]. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated pilgrim’s knowledge, attitude, and practice of first aid. We expect that our finding and results will promote public health and give an idea about Algerian experience about first aid in the future mass gathering.


Subjects and Methods

This is a cross-sectional quantitative observational study that was performed on Algerian Hajj pilgrims in 2017. The study was performed using a modified questionnaire used by the Hong Kong Red Cross that assessed their knowledge and attitude toward first aid. The statistical analysis was done using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software version 20, and the statistical test used here was the Chi-square test.


Results

The present study included 467 participants, 407 (87.2%) were males and 60 (12.8%) were females. Those with an age range of 41–50 years were the most dominant age group 159 (34%). Also, those with high school education were the dominant educational group 203 (43.5%). There were 284 (82.2%) who reported knowing the meaning of first aid and 129 (27.6%) who learned first aid; demographics of participants are shown in Table 1. The score of knowledge ranged from 1 to 10 with a mean ± SD of 6.79 ± 1.9, whereas the range of attitude score was 5–25 with a mean ± SD of 20.98 ± 3.6 (Figure 1). By investigating the factors associated with knowledge, it was found that both age and educational level were significantly associated with knowledge score (p-value < 0.001 for each of age and education level), whereas score of knowledge did not affect by sex, there was no significant association between knowledge score and sex (p-value = 0.2), as shown in Table 2. Regarding attitude, only education level was associated with the attitude of participants (p-value ≤ 0.001), whereas sex and age had no significant association (Table 3). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.2, p = 0.001), as shown in Figure 2. Knowing the meaning of first aid was significantly associated with the mean of knowledge and attitude (p-value < 0.001 for each), also learning first aid significantly was associated with the mean score of knowledge and mean score of attitude (p-value < 0.001, 0.01 respectively), as shown Table 4.

Table 1. Demographics of participants.

Characteristic N (%)
Gender
   Male 407 (87.2%)
   Female 60 (12.8%)
Age
   19–30 8 (1.7%)
   31–40 64 (13.7%)
   41–50 159 (34%)
   51–60 146 (31.3%)
   ≥61 90 (19.3%)
Education level
   Below primary or never attended school 89 (19.1%)
   Primary school 36 (7.7%)
   Secondary school 35 (7.5%)
   High school 203 (43.5%)
   University or above 104 (22.3%)
Do you know the meaning of first aid
   Yes 384 (82.2%)
   No 83 (17.8%)
Have you learned first aid
   Yes 129 (27.6%)
   No 338 (72.4%)

Figure 1. Mean score of knowledge and attitude.

Table 2. Correlations between knowledge score and demographics.

Variables Min Max Mean ± SD p-value
Sex
   Male 1 10 6.75 ± 1.9 0.24
   Female 1 10 7.06 ± 2.04
Age
   ≥19–30 4 8 6.12 ± 1.24
   31–40 3 10 6.89 ± 1.57
   41–50 1 10 7.26 ± 1.84 ≤0.001
   51–60 2 10 7 ± 1.93
   ≤61 1 9 5.63 ± 1.83
Education level
   Below primary or never attended school 1 9 5.61 ± 2.18
   Primary school 4 10 6.33 ± 1.75 ≤0.001
   Secondary school 3 10 6.68 ± 1.67
   High school 2 10 7.31 ± 1.8
   University or above 4 10 6.99 ± 1.53

Table 3. Correlations between attitude score and demographics.

Variables Min Max Mean ± SD p-value
Sex
   Male 5 25 20.98 ± 3.7 0.94
   Female 13 25 20.95 ± 2.89
Age
   ≥19–30 11 25 22.12 ± 4.76
   31–40 5 25 21.85 ± 4.14
   41–50 5 25 20.83 ± 3.53 0.16
   51–60 7 25 21 ± 3.12
   ≤61 7 25 20.48 ± 3.93
Education level
   Below primary or never attended school 8 25 19.65 ± 3.97
   Primary school 7 25 20.47 ± 4.1 ≤0.001
   Secondary school 5 25 21.14 ± 3.64
   High school 5 25 20.87 ± 3
   University or above 7 25 22.44 ± 3.75

Figure 2. Correlation between knowledge and attitude.


Discussion

The present study is the first study to assess the knowledge and attitude of Hajj pilgrims toward first aid. In the present study, the mean score of knowledge and attitude was 6.7 and 20.9; these scores reflected the good knowledge and positive attitude of the pilgrims. Both knowledge and attitude were significantly affected by the level of education. Regarding knowledge, those with high school education had the highest score of knowledge (7.3), whereas the highest score of attitude (22.44) was scored by participants with university education. However, those with primary education or who did not attend school had an acceptable level of knowledge (5.6) and positive attitude (19.65), and this reflects the interest of Hajj about the health guidelines. Sex did not influence either knowledge or attitude, while age had no effect on attitude, but it was found significantly influenced by knowledge score. Those with an age range of 41–50 years significantly showed the highest score of knowledge (7.26) compared with other age groups. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge and attitude; this means that a positive attitude toward first aid is shown by those with higher knowledge. First aid is defined as providing limited care for an injured individual or ill person until definitive medical treatment can be provided [9]. Knowing the mean of first aid was significantly associated with knowledge and attitude, those who knew the meaning of first aid had more knowledge and positive attitude. Also, those who learned first aid had significantly higher knowledge and positive attitude than those who did not learn first aid. There was no previous study conducted on this subject in the Saudi population, further studies are recommended.

Table 4. Correlation between knowledge and attitude with two questions.

Questions Knowledge Attitude p-value
Min–max (Mean ± SD) Min–max (Mean ± SD)
Do you know the meaning of first aid
   Yes 2–10 (7.06 ± 1.8) 5–25 (21.26 ± 3.4) <0.001*
   No 1–9 (5.55 ± 1.95) 8–25 (19.66 ± 4.24) <0.001**
Have you ever learned first aid
   Yes 4–10 (7.71 ± 1.42) 5–25 (21.67 ± 3.42) <0.001*
   No 1–10 (6.44 ± 1.96) 5–25 (20.71 ± 3.65) 0.01**

*p for knowledge, **p for attitude.


Conclusion

There were good knowledge and positive attitude toward first aid among Algerian Hajj pilgrim; this can be attributed to the health guidelines and awareness programs for Hajj pilgrim.


List of Abbreviations

AED Automated external defibrillators
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Funding

None.


Declaration of conflicting interests

None.


Consent for publication

Informed consent was obtained from all the participants.


Author details

Abdulrahman Mohammad Alshumrani1, Bassam Adel Aljabri1, Khalidomarali Al Ahmadi1, Ali Moslih Almalki1, Motaz Mohammed Saeed Sulaimani1, Hussein Ageil Alkhairi2, Hassan M. Masmali2

  1. College of Medicine, Umm Alqura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  2. Department of Infection Control, Maternity and Children Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

References

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  2. Joseph N, Kumar GS, Babu YPR, Nelliyanil M, Bhaskaran U. Knowledge of first aid skills among students of a medical college in Mangalore city of South India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(2):162–6. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.129022
  3. Kureckova V, Gabrhel V, Zamecnik P, Rezac P, Zaoral A, Hobl J. First aid as an important traffic safety factor—evaluation of the experience-based training. Eur Trans Res Rev. 2017;9(1):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-016-0218-4
  4. Markenson D, Ferguson JD, Chameides L, Cassan P, Chung KL, Epstein J, et al. Part 17: first aid: 2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines for First Aid. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S934–46. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971150
  5. Jiang L, Zhang J. Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with cardiac arrest. World J Emerg Med. 2011;2(3):165–8. https://doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2011.03.001
  6. Bossaert LL. Fibrillation and defibrillation of the heart. Br J Anaesthesia. 1997;79(2):203–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/79.2.203
  7. van Alem AP, Vrenken RH, de Vos R, Tijssen JG, Koster RW. Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ. 2003;327(7427):1312. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7427.1312
  8. Nessler K, Nessler M, Krztoń-Krolewiecka A, Chrapusta A, Windak C. The knowledge about burn first aid among young physicians in Malopolska Region—a pilot study. Plastic Surg Burns. 2014;2(1):7–13.



How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alshumrani AM, Aljabri BA, Ahmadi KOAA, Almalki AM, Sulaimani MMS, Alkhairi HA, Masmali HM. Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. IJMDC. 2019; 3(8): 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793


Web Style

Alshumrani AM, Aljabri BA, Ahmadi KOAA, Almalki AM, Sulaimani MMS, Alkhairi HA, Masmali HM. Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=21859 [Access: July 23, 2019]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alshumrani AM, Aljabri BA, Ahmadi KOAA, Almalki AM, Sulaimani MMS, Alkhairi HA, Masmali HM. Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. IJMDC. 2019; 3(8): 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alshumrani AM, Aljabri BA, Ahmadi KOAA, Almalki AM, Sulaimani MMS, Alkhairi HA, Masmali HM. Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. IJMDC. (2019), [cited July 23, 2019]; 3(8): 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



Harvard Style

Alshumrani, A. M., Aljabri, . B. A., Ahmadi, . K. O. A. A., Almalki, . A. M., Sulaimani, . M. M. S., Alkhairi, . H. A. & Masmali, . H. M. (2019) Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. IJMDC, 3 (8), 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



Turabian Style

Alshumrani, Abdulrahman Mohammad, Bassam Adel Aljabri, Khalid Omar Ali Al Ahmadi, Ali Moslih Almalki, Motaz Mohammed Saeed Sulaimani, Hussein Ageil Alkhairi, and Hassan M Masmali. 2019. Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (8), 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



Chicago Style

Alshumrani, Abdulrahman Mohammad, Bassam Adel Aljabri, Khalid Omar Ali Al Ahmadi, Ali Moslih Almalki, Motaz Mohammed Saeed Sulaimani, Hussein Ageil Alkhairi, and Hassan M Masmali. "Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alshumrani, Abdulrahman Mohammad, Bassam Adel Aljabri, Khalid Omar Ali Al Ahmadi, Ali Moslih Almalki, Motaz Mohammed Saeed Sulaimani, Hussein Ageil Alkhairi, and Hassan M Masmali. "Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.8 (2019), 659-662. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alshumrani, A. M., Aljabri, . B. A., Ahmadi, . K. O. A. A., Almalki, . A. M., Sulaimani, . M. M. S., Alkhairi, . H. A. & Masmali, . H. M. (2019) Knowledge, attitude and practices on First aid among Hajj pilgrims in 2017. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (8), 659-662. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1545038793