Original Article

IJMDC. 2019; 3(8): 648-653

Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow

Authors: Saroj Kunwar, Bimal Chaulagain, Rajendra KC, Pradeep Pokhrel, Apeksha Niraula.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to all 5 stages of kidney damage, from very mild damage in Stage 1 to complete kidney failure in Stage 5. CKD results in increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. Hyperuricemia and anemia are the two well-studied complications of CKD which progresses along with the severity of the disease. Thus, this study intended to assess hyperuricemia and anemia in patients with different stages of CKD in Nepal population. Methodology: Two hundred seventy-seven patients (217 cases and 60 controls) were enrolled in this study. Laboratory analysis was done at Modern Technical College Clinical Laboratory, Nepal. Serum uric acid, creatinine, urea, and hemoglobin concentration were measured using spectrophotometric assay. Results: The prevalence of anemia in stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found to be 21.80%, 55.50%, 83.70%, and 91.50% respectively with an overall prevalence of 62.21% among CKD patients. Hemoglobin level was found significantly lower in CKD subjects than non-CKD controls (p<0.001). Among the total subjects, 48.3% of CKD cases and 20% of non-CKD controls had anemia. The incidence of hyperuricemia in stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 was found to be 7.8%, 20%, 24.3%, and 35.20% respectively with an overall prevalence of 25.1% among CKD patients. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in CKD subjects than non-CKD controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: The present study depicts a high incidence of anemia and hyperuricemia with the progression of CKD in the Nepal population. Hence, the study reports a strong association of anemia and hyperuricemia with CKD.

Keywords:
Anemia, hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemoglobin


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Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow


Authors
Saroj Kunwar
Department of Biochemistry, Modern Technical College Lalitpur, Nepal
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Bimal Chaulagain
Department of Biochemistry, Modern Technical College Lalitpur, Nepal
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Rajendra KC
Department of Biochemistry, Modern Technical College Lalitpur, Nepal
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Pradeep Pokhrel
Department of Biochemistry, Modern Technical College Lalitpur, Nepal
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Apeksha Niraula
Department of Biochemistry, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
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Correspondence to:
. Department of Biochemistry, Modern Technical College Lalitpur, Nepal; sarojkunwar00@gmail.com

Publication history
Published online 01 Jan 1970
Received 21 Nov 2018
Revised 03 Feb 2019
Accepted 20 Feb 2019
Published in print 21 May 2019

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Pubmed Style

Kunwar S, Chaulagain B, KC R, Pokhrel P, Niraula A. Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. IJMDC. 2019; 3(8): 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


Web Style

Kunwar S, Chaulagain B, KC R, Pokhrel P, Niraula A. Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. http://www.ijmdc.com/?mno=18223 [Access: December 11, 2019]. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kunwar S, Chaulagain B, KC R, Pokhrel P, Niraula A. Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. IJMDC. 2019; 3(8): 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kunwar S, Chaulagain B, KC R, Pokhrel P, Niraula A. Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. IJMDC. (2019), [cited December 11, 2019]; 3(8): 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


Harvard Style

Kunwar, S., Chaulagain, . B., KC, . R., Pokhrel, . P. & Niraula, . A. (2019) Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. IJMDC, 3 (8), 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


Turabian Style

Kunwar, Saroj, Bimal Chaulagain, Rajendra KC, Pradeep Pokhrel, and Apeksha Niraula. 2019. Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (8), 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


Chicago Style

Kunwar, Saroj, Bimal Chaulagain, Rajendra KC, Pradeep Pokhrel, and Apeksha Niraula. "Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3 (2019), 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kunwar, Saroj, Bimal Chaulagain, Rajendra KC, Pradeep Pokhrel, and Apeksha Niraula. "Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow." International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 3.8 (2019), 648-653. Print. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kunwar, S., Chaulagain, . B., KC, . R., Pokhrel, . P. & Niraula, . A. (2019) Hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic kidney disease: a conundrum in the shadow. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries, 3 (8), 648-653. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1542790103


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